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GENERAL AND SPECIAL IN CHARACTERISTICS OF ACME FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE

As follows from the above, acme is the highest level of development for each person of his physical health, mind, feeling, will, interacting in such a way that he achieves the greatest result, manifesting himself as an individual, as a person and as a subject of activity.



What are we, if we keep in mind our physical condition, intellect, emotional sphere, strong-willed attitude, which in the life of each "I" cannot be torn from each other, this is always manifested in activity, in relationships, and necessarily in their materialized or spiritual form product. This idea can be illustrated by the example of Akme, academician of architecture L.V. Rudnev, who designed the university complex on the Lenin (Vorobyev) mountains, mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky, who developed "Noneuclidean geometry", the artist V.I. Surikov, who created a masterpiece of historical painting, the painting "Boyar Morozov."



The aforementioned figures of Russian culture left other fruits of their creativity, but those that were mentioned above are their highest achievements.



It can be seen from the above examples that the areas of activity in which a person reaches his acme are very different in nature. However, the same can be said about social situations in which a person as a person performs the most important and difficult for him socially significant actions. Let us recall, for example, the appeal of Kuzma Minin to Nizhny Novgorod about saving the Russian land or the refusal of the great physiologist. At the height of the civil war and general devastation, the Nobel laureate I.P. Pavlov moved from Russia to the United States or England, where he was offered brilliant working conditions.



Further, comparing the phenomenon of acme, as it makes itself felt by different people, you involuntarily see that its manifestation may be local and not go beyond the limits of one activity, one area of ​​knowledge, one type of social situations, or maybe wide, cover more the number of the latter. For example, our compatriot, an outstanding psychologist B.G. Ananyev, acme took place in scientific activity (enough to see his latest book “Man as an Object of Knowledge”, published in 1968), and as a teacher and as an organizer science; Acme at the Nobel laureate N.N. Semenova manifested itself in the innovative level of integration of approaches and knowledge accumulated in the field of chemistry and physics and in the creation of a new promising direction in science - chemical physics. Or take the sports field and recall V.M. Bobrov, whose outstanding acme is in football, hockey, and a coaching role in the national team of the country, is universally recognized by specialists both in Russia and abroad.



The latitude parameters of acme can be illustrated even more vividly if we trace its manifestation by great encyclopedic scientists and artists at the same time, for example, Leonardo da Vinci, M.V. Lomonosov et al.



By tracing the main characteristics of acme, one can also distinguish among them its level or, figuratively speaking, its caliber. Estimating on this parameter the actions or deeds of a person who has reached the peak in his development, it is necessary to establish whether they indicate to them a creative increase of what was achieved before him, i.e. about a “breakthrough” into the future and the degree of this breakthrough, or they talk about the ordinary and simple reproduction of the former.



Probably, readers will have no objection to the fact that the wheel invented by an unknown author, painted by Andrei Rublev, the icon of the “Holy Trinity”, discovered by Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation, composed by Ludwig Van Beethoven’s “Heroic Symphony”, created by Nikolai Cherkasov, the image of Professor Polezhaev is not only an expression of their acme, but also their truly innovative contribution to world culture.



At the same time, in the past, in the present, and in the future, people who do not “discover the Americas”, who do not dream to conquer the Cosmos, do not seek to invent a perpetuum mobile, but who have learned the activity algorithms that gave them the school and the educational institution in which they received vocational training, as usual for themselves, just work diligently every day, earning their daily bread.



Thus, people are very different from each other, again figuratively speaking with “calibers” of acme achieved by each of them. For some, the "peak" to which they ascended, judging by their real actions and deeds, has a more noticeable and significant increase in the values ​​of the life of culture, for others — less, for others — it is completely absent. In direct connection with what has been said, the problem of the so-called pseudoacme arises, when a person commits acts and deeds that are perceived by people around him as the pinnacles of his achievements and are declared as an “epochal” contribution to the treasury of universal human experience. That is, for example, the “discovery” by academician T.D. was evaluated and presented. Lysenko’s mechanism of transformation (jump) of one plant species into another or just presented to the public, ignorant of all the difficulties of the problem, the possibility of a cell-free substance arising from a cell-free mass, allegedly proved by academician O.B. Lepeshinskaya.



There is a common phrase: “the suite makes the king” and in the recent past we all witnessed the creation of the illusion of acme, pseudoacma in the first person in the state, for which this person’s immediate environment and the whole ideological and information system existed.



The problem of acme can be considered from another perspective: when a person really reaches the top, and the highest peak, in his development as a person and as a subject of activity, but the qualities that dominate his personality do not correspond to the moral standards accepted in the society in which he lives, and his actions by their results are unlawful.



Say, in his own way, the most talented swindler who committed the crime of the century and showed a remarkable mind, the deepest knowledge of human psychology, outstanding special skills, he undoubtedly goes to the level of his acme, but what he achieved is not a contribution to the values ​​of life and culture. Its acme is both in its content and in its form antisocial.



Another essential characteristic of acme can be the time it reaches a person during the development of the latter as an individual, as a person and as a subject of activity.



Judging by the data available in the scientific literature, different people may, for example, have different times for the onset of puberty and peak manifestations at the optimal level of reproductive function.
The same can be said about the time each of them reached the peak of visual or some other kind of sensitivity, the most successful work of non-verbal and verbal intelligence, or both of them together, and a number of other formations in the psyche, say, as complex as a system of relations to the surrounding reality, in which the moral core of the personality finds expression.



As shown by numerous facts collected and systematized by scientists working in various fields of human science, in some areas of activity people rise to the level of higher achievements relatively early, for example, in poetry, choreography and even mathematics, in others much later, for example, in philosophy or psychology . In addition, observation of the process of development and self-development of different people reveals that, for example, one person in family relationships can achieve his acme, in his profession he can only be on the approaches to it, and as for the attitude, for example, to the Fatherland, to objectify its in the form of pseudo-acme.



Perhaps a controversial position is formulated here, but it follows from the above that at the same time each person is characterized by the coexistence of different stages of the transformation of the basic values ​​of life and culture into his own values, which always directly affects the characteristics of his motivational-need sphere that determines the height to which he is able to rise as a person.



The next parameter that is found when comparing acme of different people is its duration.



E.L. Voynich during her almost century-old life has created more than one work of art. However, in none of them was she able to rise to such heights of creativity and achieve such a power of influence on the reader as in her novel “Gadfly”. At the same time, the period of creative acme by Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky was not as short as that of Voinich, on the contrary, it was a long one. Or another example: the personality acme of the pilot Nikolai Gastello, who sent his burning plane to a column of German tanks during the Great Patriotic War, was very fleeting, though due to circumstances beyond his control. At the same time, his colleagues by profession - also pilots - Ivan Kozhedub and Alexander Pokryshkin, it turned out to be much longer.



In these last examples, the significance of the situation is especially clearly visible, which puts a person before a choice whether he will become a real person or continue to live in an ordinary dimension. At the same time, examples of personal acme N. Gastello, I. Kozhedub, A. Pokryshkin, who were constantly ready to give the most irreplaceable that they had for their Fatherland, for their people - their life, once again confirm that man is not a puppet, which historical patterns pull at the strings. Deeply right was Yu.M. Lotman, who believed that “life as such is not always above all. Maybe just conscience is the most expensive ... Our beliefs differ only in one thing - the price that we are ready to pay for them. ”



Probably, in connection with what has just been said, we have every reason to single out another essential feature of acme, namely the nature of interaction, interpenetration, and maybe complementarity of personal acme and subject-activity acme.



During World War II, Marshal G.K. Zhukov rose to the highest level of his military talent, and an important condition that allowed him to put his strategic plans into practice was a high motivational commitment to their obligatory implementation.



Confidence in the correctness of the decisions taken, which was based on an objective assessment of our forces and the enemy’s forces, high ability to predict the actions of the command of the German troops and, accordingly, to plan the military operations of our units, and most importantly, the results achieved as a result of this victory, made him unyielding in disputes with opponents and even with the Supreme Commander I.V. Stalin.



Of course, this culmination of closely related to each other subject-activity and personal acme in G.K. Zhukov was preceded by an acme of lesser scale when he was a soldier, a non-commissioned officer in the tsarist army, a squadron commander in the Red Army, and further, when he held other higher command posts in it, invariably showing a high sense of duty, constant insistence on himself and others and the utmost dedication in the work, aimed at expanding professional erudition, professional intelligence and specific qualities that are necessary for this commander.



M. Voloshin, thinking about the reasons that bring a person to a high acme level, he wrote that fate, when she needs to melt an extraordinary personality and a major creator-creator in any field of activity, does this: “she gives birth to him endowed with such vital and effective opportunities that he can’t get rid of them even in ten years. And then she painstakingly locks all exits to action around him, leaving only the narrow gap of her dreams free, and, folding her hands, calmly expects what will happen. Therefore, the source of all creativity lies in deadly tension, in a break, in a tear of the soul, in a distortion of the normal-logical course of life, in the passage of a camel through the eye of a needle ”(13. - P. 256). The same applies to the birth of a non-standard personality. Performing actions in extreme social situations that meet the good of Man and Mankind, the good of its fellow citizens, the person turns into not only an initiative creator of his own destiny, but also an active figure in social development.

Therefore, without belittling the role of macro-, meso-, microfactors that act externally on each person from the moment of birth and further, preventing or facilitating him to reach the peak in his development, I still want to finish these reflections on acme and its formation with the words of M. Gorky : “We create life with us - with us!” And whether we are able to contribute to the true values ​​of life and culture, it is no less than the environment, it depends on our mind, feelings, and will.

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GENERAL AND SPECIAL IN CHARACTERISTICS OF ACME FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE

  1. The phenomenon of "acme" and its main characteristics
    Plan 1. "Acme" as one of the basic concepts of a new science. 2. A broader and more narrow-local understanding of "acme" when tracking human development at the stage of adulthood. 3. "Microacme" as intermediate peaks in the development of man, preceding his achievement of "macroacme". 4. The main characteristics of the "acme" of a person. 5. "Pseudoacma" as the antipode of the true peak in human development.
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