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Petersburg Scientific School of B.N. Ananyev

According to N.V. Kuzmina, at present many and different psychological schools and directions have their practice in Russia: “But the most profound, theoretically and experimentally substantiated, from my point of view, are two:

1 - in pedagogical practice, the creation of the psychological service of the Moscow school of psychologists;

2 - in acmeological practice, the creation of a future acmeological service in the production fields - the St. Petersburg School of Psychologists.

If the founder of the Moscow school of psychologists is the brilliant L.S. Vygotsky, the founder of the St. Petersburg school of psychologists is the genius B.G. Ananyev. (Genius is the creator of a new direction in science) ”[1, p.10].

Boris Gerasimovich Ananiev was born on August 1, 1907 in Vladikavkaz. At the end of high school in 1924 he entered the Gorsky Pedagogical Institute in the hometown at the socio-economic faculty. Ananiev was 17 years old when he became a student and with such characteristic enthusiasm he plunged into educational and public work. Exactly one year after entering the institute, Ananyev began to work as an assistant in the department of pedology and psychology while studying.

In 1926, Boris Ananyev enrolled in a scientific student group at the pedology office of the Gorsky Pedagogical Institute, which was headed by associate professor Roman Ivanovich Cheranovsky, who began research work on the basis of the ankylosing spondylitis theory and the corresponding objective methods [8, p. 7].

In the 1920s, pedologists from Vladikavkaz collaborated with reflexologists at the Brain Institute, headed by V.M.Bekhterev. The latter fact explains to us an important event in the life of B.G. Ananyev - his admission to the Bechterev Institute of the Brain in Leningrad, first as a trainee, and then as a graduate student of the Department of Development (Pedology). This event decisively determined the life path of Boris Gerasimovich.

The history of Russian psychology and the biography of Boris Gerasimovich Ananyev are inextricably linked with the nineteenth century, when I.M.Sechenov found his answer to the question "To whom and how to develop psychology?" Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov inspired his supporters in psychology to a strictly scientific, objective study of the psyche. Many Russian scientists followed Sechenov, including I.P. Pavlov and V.M. Bekhterev. Boris Gerasimovich Ananiev in the new conditions of the new time in his own way implemented Sechenov's ideas, his installation on objective knowledge in the field of behavior and the psyche. But he went further than his predecessors and embraced in his work not only the natural science foundations of psychology, but also its humanitarian peaks. He strove to create a comprehensive system of human science with psychological science in the center [6, p.2].

Thus, the main difference between the psychological direction of research led by B.G. Ananyev, is a holistic approach to the study of man as an individual, person, subject of activity, individuality throughout life, i.e. from early childhood, the first signs of self-awareness, to old age, from the mastery of speech, to the factors of creative longevity in old age. The whole range of problems B.G. Ananiev was ultimately subordinated to the theoretical and methodological justification and equipment of the acmeological service - the goal is to help a mature person in solving his professional and life problems. This conclusion can be drawn from the texts of B.G. Ananyev, and the complex of problems and methods for solving them by B.G. Ananyev and his students, who carried out under his leadership candidate and doctoral research, received his support and encouragement, working under his wing [1, p.11].

His monograph "Man as an object of knowledge" [3] is a kind of testament. In it he gives a definition of acmeology N.A. Rybnikov (1928) as a science about the development of a mature person, in contrast to pedology - the science of children. In it, he finds the place of acmeology in the system of human sciences, placing it between pedagogy and gerontology.

The subject of acmeology is the regularity of conditions, factors and incentives for the self-realization of a person’s creative potential throughout his life, the development of creative readiness for an upcoming activity, achievement of the heights of life and professionalism of activity.

Happy is only a truly moral person who is aware of his mission in life and fulfilling it in deeds and actions.

The acmeological service for helping mature people consists in helping them to take place in life and profession, to see the fruits of their labors that bring joy and benefit to other people.

The psychological service at school not only solves many problems, but also gives rise to new ones. Once in the guise of pedology, it has already been eliminated. The pedologist was not able to bring teachers to the processes of self-correction and self-organization of activity.
Conflicts arose between - pedologists and teachers. In order for the psychological service not to be rejected again, it must be supplemented with acmeological functions [1, p. 11].

In the St. Petersburg (Leningrad) school, fundamental research was carried out to create and develop an acmeological service in different directions. This is evidenced by the work of B.G. Ananyev, and his students and at all stages of life, as an individual, personality, individuality. We all come from childhood. The creation of the pedological psychological service at school at the beginning is the merit of the founders of the Moscow school of psychologists. The complex of problems that interested B.G. Ananiev with access to the practice of creating an acmeological service, he summarized in a monograph - testament to students - "Man as an object of knowledge."

The exposition of his ideas is found both in his own writings, still not systematized, and not published in the collected works, and in the writings of his students, whom he proudly called "guardsmen" from psychology. They became the founders of a number of new areas in psychology and in the practice of working with mature people. They created new branches of knowledge that have access to practical acmeology and acmeology service for specialists and professionals.

His student B.F. Lomov defined the subject of engineering psychology and opened the first laboratory in the Soviet Union, the first department of engineering psychology and the first specialization in it. He was the first dean of the Faculty of Psychology of Leningrad State University, founded and opened the Psychological Institute as part of the USSR Academy of Sciences, created works on engineering psychology and psychology methodology that adorn psychological science [1, p.13].

Proceedings of Yu.M. Zabrodina, A.D. Krylova, G.V. Sukhodolsky, B.D. Shadrikova in their origins belong to the Petersburg School of Psychologists B.G. Ananyev - B.F. Lomova. In synthesis with acmeology, they have direct access to the acmeological service.

A group of social perception was created in the laboratory of social psychology, employees for research A.A. Bodalev, who founded his own direction.

A special area of ​​medical psychology, headed by B.N. Myasischev and S.O. Serebryakova was also born in the bosom of the school of V.M. Ankylosing spondylitis - B.G. Ananyeva. V.N. Myasischev ball older than B.G. Ananyeva, but considered him his teacher.

The followers of B.G. Ananiev were Yu.A. Samarin, A.B. Yarmolenko, A.G. Kovalev. Their legacy has many great ideas about creativity, the conditions, factors and incentives for its self-realization. There are exits to legal psychology and acmeology (V. L. Vasiliev - a student of A. V. Yarmolenko) psychology and acmeology of education, acmeological service.

Student B.G. Ananyeva V.D. Drankov developed an original system for the development of creative abilities in the field of art among students of the Institute of Culture.

Of course, this is far from all the directions born in the Petersburg-Leningrad school of B.G. Ananyeva.

With a superficial look at the scientific heritage of B.G. Ananyeva may be surprised at the wide scatter of topics, problems, and aspects. However, the howl fits in only two intersecting directions:

1 - the life path of a person from birth to acme-maturity, from acme-maturity to the finish, including the immediate and remote environment in the family, educational organizations, social systems;

2 - a systematic study of a person as an individual, person, subject of activity, individuality, his self-realization in acts and products of creativity.

A holistic analysis of everything B.G. Ananyev and under his leadership in the writings of his students and followers can be realized only in the system of acmeological concepts.

Acmeology, as a new field of scientific knowledge, not only designated a new subject of research, a mature person, but also defined a new system of concepts, a new system of methods, where modeling is the leading one. In this regard, acmeology has fundamentally new outputs in practice. The fundamental novelty lies in the fact that in psychology research methods are the privilege of specialists only, only professional psychologists should be able to work with them. “Given the subject of psychology - the laws of reflection of reality in the human psyche, this is obviously true,” writes N.V. Kuzmina [1, p.15].

But the subject of acmeology is mature people of different levels of activity productivity, creating a new reality and striving to understand the reasons for their low or low productivity. To help such a person, both theory and method must be given into his own hands. In this regard, new relationships arise between science and its practitioner.

Acmeology opens up new perspectives for the entire block of psychological, pedagogical, humanitarian and natural sciences disciplines and society.
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Petersburg Scientific School of B.N. Ananyev

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