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CORRELATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PATHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
The facts accumulated to date by medical genetics allow us to present the whole variety of relationships between heredity and the environment in a generalized form.
Imagine a situation where the contribution of heredity to the development of a trait, including a pathological one, is zero. This would mean that the trait is completely formed by the external environment, without any involvement of the genotype. In other words, the medium would act "on nothing." In fact, the environment always affects one or another material substrate, which is the result of the action of genes. Imagine the opposite situation, that is, when the contribution of heredity is 100%. This would mean that the genetic information about the trait is realized outside the influence of the environment. In fact, the contribution of each of the components to the formation of a sign or property, and therefore, the disease will be different for various types of pathology.
An organism is a unity of external and internal, an integral system of complex interconnected parts. Any organism has an infinite number of signs, although in the empirical description of both a healthy and a sick organism we record only a limited list of properties. Based on the most common genetic and molecular biological concepts, many chains of disparate events of development of both normal and pathological signs can be connected. Both normal and pathological signs of the organism are the result of the interaction of hereditary (internal) and environmental (external) factors. That is why a common understanding of pathological processes is possible only taking into account the results of the interaction of heredity and the environment. Thus, an individual’s genetic program, directly or indirectly, can participate in the development of pathology.
There are forms of hereditary pathology, the clinical manifestations of which are almost independent of the influence of the environment. However, this does not mean that everything in a person comes down only to his biology, his genetics. However, today it is completely obvious that outside the phenomenon of heredity, no processes of cell activity, development of an individual and evolution of organisms are possible.
The fact that a person is social in nature, largely determines the nature of the disease. The increase in the proportion of noncommunicable diseases (such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, oncological pathology, mental and other diseases) in the structure of morbidity, mortality and disability is perhaps the most convincing evidence of this. The social nature of man in many ways becomes a determining factor in the implementation of pathological genotypes. Conducting medical and hygienic measures aimed at preventing the influence of harmful environmental factors, creating conditions conducive to the implementation of normal genotypes and preventing the development of pathological ones, therapy of a number of hereditary diseases can reduce the severity of hereditary defects, and in some cases, complete correction of the hereditary disease.
Currently, not only microsocium forms specific conditions for the implementation of the genotype.
Broad socio-economic transformations significantly change the genetic structure of populations. Changes in population and demographic indicators, such as blood relationship, population density, intensity and direction of migration, marriage system, family size, and others, inevitably affect both the spectrum and the prevalence of hereditary pathology.
Socio-economic activity of a person leads to the appearance in the biosphere of new chemical compounds and physical factors with teratogenic and mutagenic effects. The extent of environmental pollution by chemical compounds and radiation sources is amazing. Currently, about 7 million artificially created chemical compounds are in the human environment. A resident of a large industrial city contacts almost 50 thousand of them during the day. Despite the lack of rigorous evidence of the relationship between the degree of environmental pollution with the occurrence of genetically determined diseases and congenital anomalies, it can be stated that their number is increasing. Environmental degradation may create a background conducive to the realization of a hereditary predisposition to multifactorial diseases. In connection with the anthropogenic nature of pathological environmental factors, qualitatively new problems arise in the protection of the human gene pool.
A number of environmental causes are capable of causing disease in any genotype. Most often, this situation is realized in the absence of species protection from exposure to external agents, but even in this case, the nature of the lesion, the magnitude and variety of clinical manifestations, and other characteristics of the disease are largely determined by the genetic constitution of the body. On the other hand, even with a strict genetic determination of pathology, environmental conditions, constitutional features, the whole genotype as a whole can have a significant modifying effect on the nature, frequency and degree of manifestation of a pathological gene. Such high plasticity of the genotype creates great opportunities for the treatment, prevention of hereditary diseases, the development of effective medical and pedagogical training programs, rehabilitation and adaptation of patients.
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CORRELATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PATHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
- Pathology caused by adverse environmental factors that are inhaled.
Nowadays, the structure of diseases caused by adverse environmental factors has undergone significant changes due to the manifestation of various pathways of xenobiotics into the human body. During evolution, the bulk of toxic products entered the body through the gastrointestinal tract and rendered harmless in the liver. Currently, the majority of foreign products
- LESSON 18 TOPIC. PROFESSIONAL DISEASES. PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FACTORS
Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of topic materials is necessary for their successful mastery in clinical departments. In the practical work of a doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations and for comparing clinical data with the results of a biopsy study. The general purpose of the lesson. Learn to identify macro - and microscopic signs of acute and
- The influence of environmental factors on microorganisms
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- The influence of environmental conditions on microorganisms.
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- Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors
The environment - air, water, soil - has a constant impact on the life of a person, his health, as well as on the composition and safety of food. According to the WHO, public health is influenced by lifestyle (50%), environment (20%), heredity (20%), quality of care (10%). In this regard, hygiene has the following main tasks: • study
- Lecture IV. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Among the biological factors that are subject to standardization are those that in one way or another can harm the human body. First of all, these are pathogenic (pathogenic) pathogens of an infectious and invasive nature (bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa), their vital products (toxins, enzymes), various allergens, etc. Pathogens act on
- PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
The words of the famous physician of antiquity Paracelsus (1493-1541), who believed that "Everything is poison and nothing is poisonous" can be set as an epigraph to this lecture. In fact, the problem of pathology caused by environmental factors covers almost all human diseases. Some diseases, of which there are a great many, are caused by direct exposure to unfavorable factors.
- Hygienic requirements for external factors affecting the living conditions of the population
Requirements for the land allotted for the construction of residential buildings. Should be aimed at eliminating the adverse effects of environmental factors (physical, chemical, biological) on the state of public health and sanitary living conditions. Plots that are most favorable in natural terms are allocated for residential buildings: located on hills, far from
- Water as a factor in the environment, its hygienic and epidemiological significance. Rationing the quality of drinking water
The drinking water supply development program is an integral part of the plan for the socio-economic development of territories within the Russian Federation. Water is essential for sustaining life and it is therefore important to provide consumers with good quality water. As you know, the human body consists of 65% of water and even a slight loss of it leads to serious health conditions. Upon loss
- Malformations of the maxillofacial apparatus. The role of genetic factors in their development
One of the most common malformations in humans, accounting for about 30% of all congenital malformations, is cleft lip and palate. The frequency of cleft lip and palate corresponds to a ratio of 1: 1000. Hereditary causes were identified in 10-15% of patients, a dominant disease. The cause of congenital malformations can also be maternal illness during pregnancy (infectious diseases, diseases
- The value of environmental factors for hardening. Tempering by air, sun and water
Air quenching. Air is the most affordable hardening agent for all children at any time of the year. The use of air for recreational purposes begins with good ventilation of the room in which the children are. A great influence on strengthening the body of children is provided by walks in the fresh air. In the summer, the whole life of children (excluding night sleep) should be transferred to the site. IN
- The role of genetic, hereditary factors in the process of growth and development.
The growth of the child is a programmed process of increasing the length and body weight, inseparable from its development, the formation of functional systems. The genetic program provides the life cycle of individual development. Currently, more than 50 genes are located that are located on almost all chromosomes (except the sex) and are called proto-oncogenes. They control the processes of normal growth and
- Soil as an environmental factor. The role of soil in the transmission of epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases. Soil pollution and self-cleaning
The study of soil, its assessment of various indicators can conditionally be divided into 4 stages. I. The Dopaster period (until 1852). The central point of this period is the localistic theory of Pettenkofer, who believed that all epidemics are closely linked to the mechanical composition of the soil, the content of carbon dioxide and the amount of organic substances. Unaware of infectious agents
- Conditionality of growth and development by environmental factors.
The growth and physical development of children is influenced by environmental factors: the state of atmospheric air, the composition of drinking water, the nature of nutrition, the magnitude of solar radiation, etc. The influence of natural environmental factors on the physical development of children is governed by the influence of social living conditions. This was most clearly shown in studies that revealed a decrease in the level of physical
- External factors contributing to the development of bronchial asthma in children predisposed to it
Allergens Exposure to allergens that sensitize the respiratory tract significantly increases the risk of developing bronchial asthma, provokes the onset of the disease and determines the variability of the clinic. In a child with early sensitization and early contact with household allergens, persistent bronchial asthma and a decrease in lung function are observed. Home Allergens Home Allergens