Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Atmospheric air as an object of protection.
The objects of legal protection in accordance with the Law of the Russian Federation “On Environmental Protection” are climate resources, atmospheric air, including the ozone layer, the earth, its subsoil and soils, water (surface, underground), flora and fauna in their species diversity in all areas of growth and habitats, typical and rare landscapes, as well as other areas.
Thus, atmospheric air is one of the objects of environmental legal relations. Air is the most important component of the human environment. He is the basis of life on Earth, including human life. The atmosphere serves as reliable protection against harmful cosmic radiation, determines the climate of a given area and the planet as a whole, and has a decisive effect on people's health, their ability to work, and the life of plants and animals. Atmospheric air also performs geological, environmental, thermal control, protective, energy, economic and other functions.
Atmospheric pollution can be natural and artificial (or man-made). Natural atmospheric pollution occurs during volcanic eruptions, weathering of rocks, dust storms, forest fires, and the release of salt crystals into the atmosphere. Normally, natural sources do not cause significant atmospheric pollution.
Sources of artificial pollution are industrial, transport and domestic emissions. The main suppliers of pollution are industrial enterprises. They emit unburned fuel particles, dust, soot, ash into the atmosphere. In industrial areas, more than 1 ton of dust particles per 1 km2 per day. Cement plants serve as powerful suppliers of the finest dust to the atmosphere. The main chemical pollutant of the atmosphere is sulfur dioxide (SO), which is released during the burning of coal, shale, oil, during the smelting of iron, copper, the production of sulfuric acid, etc. Sulfur gas causes acid rain.
With a high concentration of sulfur dioxide, dust, and smoke in humid, quiet weather in industrial areas, loose, or wet, smog arises - a poisonous fog that sharply worsens people's living conditions.
Under the influence of intense solar radiation, chemicals emitted into the atmosphere by industrial enterprises and vehicles can react with each other, forming highly toxic compounds.
This type of smog is called photochemical fog. In large cities and densely populated areas, primacy in air pollution is shifting from industry to road transport. With exhaust gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons (including those with carcinogenic properties) enter the atmosphere. In some varieties of gasoline, tetraethyl lead is added as an antiknock, while small particles of lead dust enter the atmosphere with exhaust gases. The greatest amount of pollution comes from cars with poorly tuned engines and idling. The most dangerous pollution of the atmosphere and the environment is radioactive. It poses a threat to the health and life of people, animals and plants, not only of the living generations, but also of their descendants due to the appearance of numerous mutational deformities. The consequences of such a mutagenic effect on plants and animal animals are still poorly studied and difficult to predict.
In areas of moderate radioactive contamination, the number of people with leukemia increases. Sources of radioactive contamination are experimental explosions of atomic and hydrogen bombs. Radioactive substances are released into the atmosphere during the manufacture of nuclear weapons, by atomic reactors of power plants, during the decontamination of radioactive waste, etc. Now it has become clear that there is no such small dose of ionizing radiation that would be safe. Serious negative consequences for humans and other living organisms entail air pollution with chlorofluoromethanes, or freons. They are used in refrigeration units, in the production of semiconductors and aerosol cans. The leak of freons leads to their appearance in a thin ozone layer in the stratosphere. When freons decompose under the influence of ultraviolet rays, chlorine and fluorine are released, which interact with ozone. There is a danger that the layer of the ozone screen will decrease sharply and this will lead to an increase in the number of skin cancer diseases due to the penetration of hard ultraviolet radiation onto the ground. Thinning of the ozone screen, the appearance of "ozone" holes are noted over the territories of Antarctica, Australia, South America, and some regions of Eurasia.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Atmospheric air as an object of protection.
- staff of the Research Institute of Atmospheric Air Protection (Atmosphere Research Institute). Toolkit for the calculation, regulation and control of emissions of pollutants into the air, 2005
The manual contains guidelines, clarifications and additions to the main issues of air protection: - inventory of emissions of harmful (polluting) substances into the atmosphere and their sources; - rationing of emissions and establishment of MPE standards; - monitoring compliance with established emission standards; - summary calculations of air pollution emissions
- Air pollution as an important hygienic and environmental problem. Self-cleaning of air and its sanitary protection
The composition of the air environment constantly includes a variety of extraneous impurities falling into it from various sources. Over time, as a result of human activities aimed at the development of technological progress, the number of such impurities to the air increases. Currently, the so-called clean air in settlements can only be practically shown
- State sanitary supervision in the field of atmospheric air protection
Preventive state sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of atmospheric air is sanitary supervision carried out by bodies and agencies of the sanitary and epidemiological service at the stage of selection and allotment of a land plot for the construction (or reconstruction) of industrial facilities, sanitary examination of design materials, control over the construction of industrial facilities and the introduction of
- Atmospheric air as an external environment. The complex effect of meteorological factors on the human body. Meteotropic reactions
Atmospheric air is one of the most important components of human ecology. In the process of his life, a person constantly comes into contact with many factors of the external environment in which he lives, and these factors, of course, have a certain effect on the human body. One of the factors with which a person comes into contact most closely is the air environment. Air
- Test. Measures to protect atmospheric air, 2009
Introduction; Atmospheric air as an object of protection; Measures to protect the atmosphere; Architectural planning measures for the protection of atmospheric air; Legislative measures for the protection of atmospheric air; Features of the legal regime of atmospheric air; The main legal means of air protection; Conclusion List
- Legislative measures for the protection of atmospheric air.
Legal relations for the protection of atmospheric air in the Russian Federation are regulated by a special law “On the protection of atmospheric air”. This Law is aimed at preserving and improving the quality of atmospheric air, its restoration to ensure the environmental safety of human life, as well as the prevention of harmful effects on the environment. The law establishes legal and organizational
- Measures to protect atmospheric air
Legislative measures are measures that determine the ideological and legal justification of measures in the field of sanitary protection of atmospheric air. Legislative measures regulate public relations in the use and restoration of natural resources, implement the government’s environmental policy aimed at preventing air pollution
- Features of the legal regime of atmospheric air.
The object of regulation under environmental law is not air in general, but atmospheric air. The Law on the Protection of Atmospheric Air does not regulate relations regarding air in residential and industrial premises. Air in compressors, cylinders, etc., also does not apply to atmospheric air. Relationships regarding indoor air and storage
- Sanitary air protection
Polluted atmospheric air has the ability to self-purify in various natural ways: dilution, precipitation, chemical reactions, leaching by atmospheric precipitation and absorption by green spaces. Reducing concentrations of air pollutants by dilution occurs in windy weather in direct proportion to the square of the distance. Faster from the air
- Patterns of the spread of pollutants in the air
In managing air basin quality, knowledge of the laws governing the spread of harmful substances in the air is of great importance. Data on the conditions for the transport and distribution of impurities in the air are necessary for: 1) state planning of measures in the field of air protection; 2) design and construction of settlements; 3)
- Atmospheric air
Atmospheric air is a natural mixture of gases from the surface layer of the atmosphere outside residential, industrial and other premises that has developed during the evolution of the Earth. The chemical composition of the atmosphere (for dry air) contains by weight: nitrogen - 75.5%, oxygen - 23.2%, argon - 1.28%, carbon dioxide - 0.046%, ozone - 3.6x10-5%, etc. d. Inhaling every minute from 50 to 100 liters of air, a person per day
- Technical standards for emissions (TNV) of harmful (polluting) substances into the air
1. Modern environmental legislation of the Russian Federation establishes new approaches (requirements) to state regulation of emissions of pollutants into the air. Legislative procedure [I] establishes, in addition to maximum permissible emissions, technical emission standards. Technical emission standard - harmful (polluting) emission standard
- Maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances in the air
The maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of a substance in atmospheric air is considered to be such a concentration at which the adverse effect of this substance on the human body is excluded for an unlimited time (Table 14). Table 14. Maximum permissible concentrations of polluting substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas of the Substance MPC, mg / me maximum maximum
- The effect of air quality on public health
The health status of the population is one of the main criteria for environmental quality. In the structure of the general morbidity of the population, an increasing share is occupied by diseases that are a consequence of technogenic pollution of the environment, in particular atmospheric air. This trend has recently been observed not only in industrial regions, but also in rural areas. Atmospheric