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Teniidoses, trichinosis, diphyllobothriasis, opisthorchiasis, echinococcosis pose a great danger to human health. They can be attributed to helminthozoonoses, since pathogens are animal helminths, which are parasitic in the human body.
Teniidoses are invasive diseases from the group of cestodoses caused by tapeworms, tenenids (tapeworms), which parasitize the human small intestine. A person becomes infected by eating cattle or pig meat infected with the larval stage of the tapeworm. Chainworm larvae are called cysticerci or Finns, and the meat infected with them is called Finnish. In humans, there are two types of teniidosis - teniarinhoz and teniosis.
Teniarinhoz - the causative agent is bovine tapeworm. This is a large ribbon-shaped helminth up to 7-10 m long, consisting of 1000-2000 segments. At the front end of the body is a head equipped with four suction cups, with which the parasite is tightly attached to the mucous membrane of the small intestine. Mature end segments come off the body of the bovine tapeworm and stand out (they can sometimes be seen in the feces). In one mature segment, there are up to 170 thousand eggs, inside of which there is an embryo (oncosphere). The life cycle of the pathogen occurs with the change of two owners - man and cattle.
Further development of the eggs is possible only if they enter the body of an intermediate host - cattle, where the embryo located in the egg is freed from the membranes, enters the bloodstream and is introduced into the muscles by blood flow and turns into larvae - Finns (cysticerci). Finns are grayish-white transparent bubbles of rounded shape, up to 0.5 cm in size, filled with liquid. Inside the bubble is the head of the parasite with suction cups. The development of Finn in adult tapeworms occurs in the intestines of humans - the final host who consumed insufficiently cooked or fried animal meat containing tapeworm larvae (Finn meat). In the human intestines, the Finns are released from the vesicles, are attached to the mucous membrane with the head, and after 3-4 months an adult is formed. Bull tapeworm can live in the human body for up to 20 years. Symptoms of the disease - malaise, nausea, vomiting, sometimes diarrhea, pain in the abdomen and in the right hypochondrium, anemia, fainting. Often sick workers slaughterhouses, meat plants, cattle, cooks (trying raw minced meat).
A sanitary assessment of finnous meat comes down to counting the number of Finn in an area of 40 cm2. If more than three Finns are found, the meat is sent for utilization, and less than three Finns are used to make minced sausages, canned goods and meat loaves after disinfection by boiling according to the processing regime of conditionally suitable meat.
Finns are unstable to high and low temperatures. Finnous meat is reliably neutralized at a temperature inside the piece of 80 ° C. Finns die relatively quickly when meat is frozen (at a temperature of -9 ° C during the day). When salting pieces weighing 1.5-2.0 kg in a 10% solution of sodium chloride, the meat is neutralized within 20 days. Finnish corned beef should contain at least 7% salt.
In the prevention of teniidosis, a large role is given to the prevention of infection of livestock and people; active identification of patients and their treatment; conducting routine surveys of workers at risk enterprises - livestock, meat processing plants, as well as food trade and public catering enterprises; veterinary and sanitary control of cattle meat. Only branded meat that has undergone veterinary inspection and proper cooking must be consumed. The meat is considered to be neutralized from tapeworm larvae if it has a gray (beef) or white (pork) color in the cut after boiling, and the juice resulting from it does not contain blood impurities.
Teniosis is a disease similar to teniarinhoz. The causative agent is pork tapeworm. Outwardly similar to a bull’s tapeworm, but its length is not more than 3 m, segments up to 1000. On the head, in addition to four suction cups, there is a whisk of 22-23 hooks, so the pork tapeworm is also called an “armed tapeworm”. The final host and source of invasion is a person from whom the helminth segments with eggs are secreted through the intestines. The intermediate host is domestic pigs and wild boars. Pigs become infected when they eat food contaminated with human feces containing oncospheres, from which Finns develop in pig muscles, reminiscent in structure of Finnish bovine tapeworm. In pigs, Finns are most often localized in the masticatory, lumbar, and intercostal muscles, sometimes in the muscles of the tongue and heart. Pork meat is more infected by Finns than cattle meat.
A person becomes infected by eating raw and semi-raw pork meat (stroganin, undercooked and undercooked meat, undercooked skewers, testing raw minced meat, etc.). Sometimes infection is possible when eating unwashed vegetables. As a result of human infection with Finns, after 2-3 months a mature helminth forms in the small intestine, which parasitizes for many years.
Pork tapeworm is more dangerous for human health, because simultaneously with mature individuals in the intestine, the larval form in the brain, eyes, muscles, myocardium, subcutaneous tissue and other organs can also parasitize. A human disease caused by cysticerci of a porcine tapeworm is known as cysticercosis. It is difficult and the prognosis is often poor. Symptoms of the disease are diverse, depending on the localization of the cysticerci and are more pronounced than with teniidosis.
Prevention of teniosis is similar to the prevention of bovine tapeworm and consists in preventing infection of livestock and people, as well as actively identifying people with helminth infections. In this regard, it is important to carry out such measures as: improvement of settlements, farms (the construction of toilets on farms, stockyards, field camps, corrals); provision of livestock watering with clean water; removal from work with cattle of infected workers; veterinary and sanitary control of pig meat and its branding.
Finns of pork meat as well as Finns of bovine tapeworm are unstable to heat treatment and cold. They are reliably neutralized at a temperature inside the piece of 80 ° C. Neutralization by boiling is carried out according to the processing regime of conditionally suitable meat. Finnish pork tapeworms are more resistant to cold than bovine. When salting, finnous meat is cut into pieces weighing 1.5-2 kg and poured with a 10% salt solution, neutralized for 20 days.
Trichinosis is a serious disease caused in humans by the larval form of a round worm - trichinella. In a mature form, the pathogen lives in the intestines of pigs, dogs, cats, rats, mice, many wild animals (wild boars, bears). Pigs become infected by eating corpses of rats and mice.
Trichinella is a viviparous helminth 1.5-4.0 mm long, parasitizing on the wall of the small intestine, where females are fertilized and their larvae are born. Larvae with blood are distributed throughout the body, grow and in the form of a coiled spiral settle mainly in the striated skeletal muscles (cervical and intercostal), surrounded by a capsule. In the muscles, Trichinella larvae are very stable. Destroyed when cooking meat 8 cm thick after 2-6 hours
A person becomes infected with trichinosis by eating insufficiently cooked or fried pork, lard, wild boar, bear meat containing trichinella larvae. Trichinella is not affected by cooling, salting and smoking. Salted lard with streaks of meat is especially dangerous.
When trichinosis meat is consumed in the human stomach, the capsules of trichinella larvae are destroyed, the larvae enter the small intestine and turn into adult parasites. Adult Trichinella with blood penetrate the muscles and settle there in the form of a coiled spiral. Encapsulated larvae can live in the host organism for 10–40 years.
The disease usually occurs 2-3 weeks after eating contaminated meat. The disease is manifested by high fever, redness of the eyes, photophobia, pain in the muscles and abdomen, swelling of the face and eyelids, fever, rash, and changes in the blood. Mild forms are almost asymptomatic.
Prevention of trichinosis is carried out by observing sanitary rules for meat products and checking meat, especially pork, for infection with trichinella in meat processing plants and markets. Meat that has not passed the veterinary and sanitary examination is not allowed in the trade. Trichinella is not allowed in meat and meat products. With the naked eye, Trichinella is not visible. If, in a laboratory study of meat, at least one live or dead trichinella is found in 24 sections of muscle, such meat and offal must be recycled. The meat of pigs and wild animals must be cooked for at least 2.5 hours in pieces of a thickness of not more than 2.5 cm or well-cooked. External fat is overheated at 100 ° C for 20 minutes, internal fat is consumed without restrictions. An important role is given to public health education. It is necessary to fight rodents and uncontrolled slaughter of pigs without checking for infection with their Trichinella.
Diphyllobothriasis - caused by a wide ribbon, parasitizing in the intestines of humans and animals. This tape helminth reaches a length of 10 m and consists of 3000-4000 segments. At the head end are two long suction grooves with which the helminth is attached to the intestinal wall. The final owners and sources of invasion are humans, pigs, bears, foxes, seals, seals, etc., in the small intestine of which a mature helminth parasitizes. With the feces of an infected person and animals, the eggs of the lenticum, as well as the segments detached from his body, are secreted. Two intermediate hosts take part in the development cycle of the broad ribbon. When eggs enter the water of freshwater reservoirs after 3-5 weeks, larvae emerge from them, which first infect copepods - cyclops (the first intermediate host), and then the fish that eat them - pike, burbot, perch, ruff, trout, etc. ( second intermediate host). Larvae pass into the organs and tissues of fish (liver, caviar, muscles). The larva is 1-2.5 mm long and 2-3 mm thick.
A person becomes infected with diphyllobothriasis by eating fish or eggs, invaded by tapeworm larvae. In the human small intestine, the larva attaches to the wall and turns into a mature individual in 15-18 days. With a disease of diphyllobotriasis, a person has nausea, vomiting, sometimes abdominal pain, as well as anemia (anemia) up to a malignant form as a result of a violation of vitamin metabolism (especially vitamin B12, which is absorbed by the tape). Infection can occur when eating raw, undercooked, undercooked, sun-dried or non-salted fish, pike caviar and burbot infested with tapeworm larvae.
Invasive fish is reliably neutralized with all cooking methods, as well as with hot and cold smoking. For the prevention of diphyllobothriasis, it is necessary to eat only well-cooked, fried, smoked, salted fish. When salting, the fish is neutralized after 2-7 days. In the pike caviar, the lentec larvae die at 10% salting after 30 minutes, at 5% after 6 hours, and at 3% after two days. Freezing fish at a temperature of -18 ° C causes the death of larvae on the 2-4th day, and at a temperature of 6 ° C after 6-7 days.
If infection by tapeworm larvae is detected, the fish is deemed conditionally suitable and allowed to be used only after special processing, and the accompanying document states: “Conditionally suitable, is subject to special processing.”
Of great importance in the prevention of diphyllobothriasis is the identification of patients and their treatment, wastewater treatment before their discharge into water bodies, public health education in places where diphyllobothriasis is registered.
Opisthorchiasis is a disease caused by cat fluke. The disease is more common in Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Perm region. Cat fluke is a small helminth with a length of 8-13 mm. In a sexually mature form, the helminth parasitizes in the human, dog, cat, fur animals and is localized in the liver, gall bladder and pancreas. Two intermediate hosts participate in the development cycle of this helminth - mollusk and freshwater fish, mainly cyprinids (chebak, barbel, tench, ide, bream, roach, common carp, rudd, roach).
Helminth eggs enter human, dog or cat feces into the water, swallowed by mollusks, which, in turn, are absorbed by the fish. In fish, larvae of cat fluke (metacircaria) penetrate the muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat cell, where they are covered with a dense shell. The number of cat fluke larvae can reach more than 1500.
Infection of humans, cats, dogs occurs only when eating raw (frozen, slightly salted) or insufficiently cooked (fried) fish.
When eating invasive fish, larvae through the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts penetrate the organs, where they turn into adult helminths and can live for many years. Opisthorchiasis usually proceeds as a chronic disease, with periodic exacerbations. Patients with opisthorchiasis experience pain in the liver, epigastric region, sometimes in the muscles and joints, fever, dizziness, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, heartburn. Complications of opisthorchiasis are serious - liver abscess, peritonitis, primary liver cancer.
Cat fluke larvae die at high temperature. To prevent opisthorchiasis, the fish is well boiled for 20-25 minutes at a temperature inside the piece of 75-80 ° C. Fish cutlets weighing 90-100 g are fried for 20 minutes, and meatballs and fish cut into pieces weighing 30-50 g are cooked for at least 10 minutes from the moment of boiling. Freezing at -18 ° C leads to the death of larvae on the 4-5th day. With salting, the fish is neutralized after 10-25 days. Prevention of opisthorchiasis is similar to the prevention of diphyllobothriasis.
Echinococcosis is a helminthiasis caused by echinococcus. This is a small tape helminth with a length of about 0.5 cm, parasitizing in the intestines of dogs, wolves, foxes, cats. These animals secrete helminth eggs with feces and pollute the soil, water, plants, insects, birds. In the soil, eggs can last up to several months. For a long time, echinococcus eggs remain viable on the coat of animals.
A person becomes infected by drinking contaminated water, food, raw vegetables and berries, as well as by contact with an animal. In the small intestine, larvae are released from the eggs. With the flow of blood, they enter the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and other organs. In these organs, the larva grows slowly and after 3-10 years turns into a bubble with a liquid (cyst), reaching a diameter of 5-15 cm. The symptoms of the disease are very diverse and their features are associated with the organ of the lesion. Often there are allergic reactions, pain in the liver, chest pain, cough with sputum and streaks of blood, jaundice. Bubbles can suppurate and burst into the pleural and abdominal cavities. These complications are very dangerous and the prognosis of the disease is always serious.
Echinococcosis often affects pigs, cows and other domestic animals. In the sanitary assessment of meat and offal, proceed from the size of the lesion of their echinococcus. In case of complete organ damage, the meat is sent for technical disposal, in case of partial (only the liver and lungs) meat is considered conditionally suitable, and after removal of the affected organs can be eaten.
Prevention of echinococcosis consists in the proper care of pets, regular veterinary supervision of them, in compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.
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