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Alien chemicals in food



Foreign chemical substances (CHV) include compounds that, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, maintain or improve the quality of the product and its nutritional properties, or they may form in the product as a result of technological processing (heating, frying, radiation, etc.) and storage, as well as getting into it or food due to contamination.

According to foreign researchers, 30-80% or more of food comes from the total amount of foreign chemical substances that penetrate from the environment into the human body, depending on local conditions (K. Not, 1976).

The spectrum of possible pathogenic effects of ChVV, ingested with food, is very wide. They can:

1) adversely affect digestion and absorption of nutrients;

2) lower the immune defenses of the body;

3) sensitize the body;

4) have a general toxic effect;

5) cause gonadotoxic, embryotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects;

6) accelerate the aging process;

7) disrupt the function of reproduction. Therefore, the relevance of the problem is beyond doubt.

For the effective prevention of “chemical diseases” of nutritional origin, it is necessary to know the origin and main routes of entry of the most important groups of ChVV into food products.

1) products containing food additives (dyes, preservatives, antioxidants, etc.), unproven, unapproved or used in high doses;

2) products or individual food substances (proteins, amino acids, etc.) obtained by the new technology including by chemical or microbiological synthesis, not tested or made in violation of established technology or from substandard raw materials;

3) residual amounts of pesticides that may be contained in crop or livestock products obtained using feed or water contaminated with high concentrations of pesticides or in connection with the processing of animal pesticides;

4) crop products obtained using unapproved, unauthorized or irrationally applied fertilizers or irrigation water (mineral fertilizers and other agrochemicals, solid and liquid wastes from industry and livestock, communal, etc.
sewage, sludge from sewage treatment plants, etc.);

5) livestock and poultry products obtained using unapproved, unauthorized or improperly applied feed additives and preservatives (mineral and non-protein nitrogen supplements, growth stimulants - antibiotics, hormones, etc.). This group includes contamination of products associated with veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic measures (antibiotics, anthelmintic and other medicines);

6) toxicants migrated to products from food equipment: utensils, implements, containers, packaging, packaging films when using unapproved or unauthorized plastics, polymeric, rubber or other materials;

7) toxic substances formed in food products (they are called impurities of endogenous origin) due to heat treatment, smoking, frying, irradiation with ionizing radiation, enzyme and other methods of technological cooking (for example, the formation of benzo (a) pyrene and nitrosamines during smoking and other);

8) food products containing toxic substances that migrated from a polluted environment: atmospheric air, soil, water bodies. Of these substances, heavy metals and other chemical elements are of the greatest importance; persistent organochlorine compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines and other carcinogens, radionuclides, etc.

This last group includes the largest number of NWFs.

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Alien chemicals in food

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    Alien chemical substances (ChW) are also called xenobiotics (from the Greek. Xenos - alien). They include compounds which, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, preserve or improve the quality of the product, or they may form in the product as a result of processing and storage, as well as
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