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Physical properties of water (temperature, transparency, color, taste, smell) and the effect of these properties on human health.

These include smell, taste, color and transparency, that is, those properties that can be determined by the human senses. Turbid, dyed in any color or having an unpleasant smell and taste, the water is not sanitary-hygienic inadequate even if it is harmless to the human body. Deterioration of the properties of water adversely affects the drinking-water regimen, reflexively affects many physiological functions, in particular, the secretory activity of the stomach.

Transparency. This is an important indicator of water purity. Under the transparency of water is understood its ability to transmit light and make visible objects located at a certain depth. The transparency of water is determined by the amount of mechanical and chemical impurities contained in it.

The transparency of drinking water should be at least 30 cm, and the water of swimming pools - 20 cm.

Color. Drinking water should be colorless. The color of the water, like its turbidity, makes the water unpleasant to drink. Absolutely colorless water is rare, for example, in underground aquifers. In open reservoirs, water usually has one or another shade. A yellowish tint most often indicates the presence of iron salts or humic substances in the water. It is characteristic of the water of swamps. Microalgae give a greenish color to water.

Smell. Pure drinking water should not have any smell. Any smell indicates the presence in the water of either the biological decomposition products of plant or animal organisms, or any chemical compounds that are foreign to drinking water. Although sometimes this is only a consequence of the excess amount of sulfuric acid salts in the water, such as iron sulfide. This is most often characteristic of certain mineral waters. Phenolic, tar and other odors indicate a possible contamination of water by industrial wastewater, the smell of chlorine indicates excess concentrations of residual chlorine used to disinfect drinking water and water in swimming pools (above 0.5-0.6 mg per 1 liter of water).

Taste.
Drinking water should not have extraneous smacks. The taste of water depends on its mineral composition, temperature, and the concentration of dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide). Boiled water is less tasty due to the loss of gases and bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. Changes in the taste of water or the appearance of an unpleasant taste indicate the possible presence of organic substances in it, the decomposition products of various organic substances of animal or vegetable origin.

Temperature. The most favorable temperature for drinking water is +7 ... + 12 ° С. Such water more effectively quenches thirst, helps cool the mucous membrane of the mouth and esophagus and causes an increase in the activity of the salivary glands.

Reception of water, having a temperature of 5 ° C and below, leads to suppression of gastric secretion, indigestion. Very cold water can lead to local hypothermia of the nasopharynx and colds.

Water temperature is of great hygienic importance when bathing and swimming. In accordance with hygienic standards, water in indoor swimming pools (for adults) should have a temperature of +25 ... + 26 ° C, and for children - at least +26 ° C. Water temperature in natural reservoirs is not standardized.

Water temperature is one of the hygienic indicators of its quality. The deeper the aquifer lies below the surface of the soil, the less likely it is that various pollutants will enter it. This is explained both by the filtration of possible pollutants during their passage with surface waters through thick layers of the soil, and due to the presence of waterproof layers in the soil. At the same time, this is accompanied by a decrease in water temperature as the aquifer moves away from the soil surface and is defined as the constancy of water temperature at great depths. Water from deep underground aquifers always has a lower and constant temperature, it is cleaner than water from high-lying aquifers (located close to the soil surface).
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Physical properties of water (temperature, transparency, color, taste, smell) and the effect of these properties on human health.

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    Recommended reading: • basic 1. Valeologiya: ed. V.I. Bobritsko.- Poltava: 2000.-Part 1, Part 4. Additional 2. Kosovanova L.M., Melnikova M.M., Aizman R.I. Screening diagnostics of the health of schoolchildren and students. Educational-methodical manual. - Novosibirsk, 2003; 3.Vayner E.N., Volynskaya E.V. Valeology: Training workshop. - M.: 2002 4. Medical and biological foundations
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