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Helminthiasis and their prevention

Helminthiasis is a disease caused by parasitic organisms - helminths (worms). In total, about 250 types of helminths are known that can infect (infect) humans. They belong to two types of wildlife: flatworms (Plathelmintes) - include the class of tapeworms (cestodes) and the class of flukes (trematodes); roundworms (Nemathelmintes).

The size of helminths is significantly different from each other. Among them there are very small ones - 0.5 mm and very large ones - 10-15 m or more. Some types of helminths parasitize in the intestine, while others prefer the liver, lungs, and brain.

The biological feature of the development of helminths is the cyclical nature of their development, i.e. each helminth goes through the stages of a larva, a sexually mature form and an egg. Features of helminth life cycles are the basis of their epidemiological classification (Table 12). There are three main types of helminths:

Geohelminths are worms in which the maturation of eggs to an invasive (infectious) state occurs in the soil, i.e. outside the host.

Biohelminths are worms whose development cycle occurs with a change of owners, i.e. in their life cycle there are primary and intermediate owners. In the body of the intermediate host (human or animal), the stages of eggs and larvae pass; in the final host (human or animal), the helminth reaches puberty.
The larvae of some biohelminths sequentially develop in the body of the hosts of two different species, of which the first is called intermediate, and the second - additional.

Contact helminths are worms whose eggs mature quickly (within a few hours) and infection with them most often occurs when a healthy person comes in contact with a sick person. Autoinvasion (self-infection) is possible.

A person is infected with helminths in two ways: through the external environment, invaded by helminth eggs, or by eating intermediate hosts of helminths - meat of cattle, pigs, fish, which contain helminth larvae.

The distribution of helminths is influenced by natural geographical conditions (climate, soil character, availability of necessary hosts and carriers, etc.) and social factors (lifestyle, customs, communal comfort, sanitary improvement, sanitary culture, etc.).



Table 12

Epidemiological characteristics of helminthiases



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Helminthiasis and their prevention

  1. LECTURE No. 15. Helminthiasis in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
    Helminthiasis - a disease that develops when localized in the body of parasitic helminth worms and their larvae. Classification of helminthiases: 1) on the biological principle: nematodoses (roundworms), cestodoses (tape), trematodoses (flukes); 2) according to the epidemiological: geohelminthoses, biohelminthoses,
  2. Antonov M.M .. Tissue helminthiases in adults and children (epidemiology, clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention), 2004

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  4. Helminthiasis
    Helminthiasis is a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms - helminths. Over 250 types of helminths have been described in humans, of which in Russia representatives of the class of roundworms are of greatest importance: causative agents of ascariasis, hookworm infections, trichinosis, enterobiasis; trichocephalosis; class of tapeworms: teniosis, diphyllobothriasis, echinococcosis; class of flukes:
  5. Helminthiases
    Helminthiasis is a widespread disease of cats caused by parasitic worms, among which the most common are nematodes or roundworms, trematodes (flat flukes, flukes) and cestodes (tapeworms). Diseases are characterized by a chronic course leading to depletion of the body and a decrease in natural resistance. Some helminths are capable of
  6. HELMINTHOSIS (HELMINTHOSES)
    Helminthiasis in dogs is widespread and detrimental to dog breeding. In dogs, several types of helminths can parasitize at the same time. The intensity of invasion (the number of helminths in one dog) can be different - from units to hundreds or more specimens. Helminths of dogs of most species in the mature stage parasitize in the gastrointestinal tract, but some species have adapted to
  7. Helminthiasis in children. Practical skills
    Questions for repetition: 1. Cycles of development of roundworms, whipworms, pinworms; pork, bovine and dwarf tapeworms. Test questions: 1. The prevalence and ways of infection with helminths in children. 2. Clinical manifestations of ascariasis, depending on the stage of development. Diagnosis and treatment. 3. Clinical manifestations of enterobiosis. Diagnosis and treatment. 4. Clinical manifestations of trichocephalosis.
  8. Helminthiasis
    Echinococcosis. Zoonotic natural-anthropurgic helminthiases, manifested in humans in two clinical forms - single-chamber (E. Granulosus) and alveolar (multi-chamber) (E. multilocularis). Development takes place with the participation of two hosts - intermediate and final. Reservoir and sources: the final owner of the dog, intermediate with x animals. The transmission mechanism is fecal-oral,
  9. Contact helminthiases
    Enterobiosis - helminthiasis caused by pinworms. Distributed everywhere. In terms of frequency of occurrence, it ranks first among helminthiases in children of preschool and primary school age in organized groups. Pinworms are round worms about 1 cm long, parasitizing in the lower part of the small and initial sections of the human large intestine. After fertilization, the males die, and the females
  10. The effect of OSSV on the spread of helminthiases
    The use of wastewater in agriculture in different climatic zones of the CIS and abroad in the sanitary-helminthological aspect is assessed differently. Us [Romanenko N.A. et al., 1985], special surveys were conducted in the conditions of Kaliningrad, Moscow, Volgograd, Novosibirsk, Kustanai, Rostov, Kiev, regions, in the Krasnodar Territory and Azerbaijan. Survey
  11. Laboratory diagnosis of tissue helminthiases
    Laboratory methods for tissue helminthiases, as a rule, are crucial for making and registering a diagnosis, and selecting rational etiotropic therapy. In connection with the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of the described diseases, the methods of coprological research used to diagnose intestinal helminthiases are not informative. Currently, there are parasitological, immunological, including
  12. Immunopathogenesis of tissue helminthiases
    Helminth larvae formed after infection of a person from the intestines penetrate into the blood and are hematogenously carried to organs, where they can remain viable for many years, determining the clinical picture of the disease. In some cases, re-migration of larvae is possible. Tissue migration is associated with serious pathological changes in the human body, as specific,
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