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HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF EQUIPMENT, CONTAINERS, TABLEWARE, PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRODUCTS
For the manufacture of containers, equipment, utensils, inventory, packaging, materials are used that are allowed by the USSR Ministry of Health for contact with food.
Cookware, equipment coating ”containers are made of various materials: glass, metals, wood, paper, cardboard, clay, minerals, various polymeric materials.
These materials must meet the following requirements:
not contain in its composition harmful substances that pass into food;
Do not adversely affect the biological value of the product, do not impair the organoleptic properties of the products or the prepared food;
protect food from environmental pollution;
have a smooth, polished, non-porous inner surface.
Ware from metals. Metals are widely used for the manufacture of kitchen and tableware, pipelines in the food industry, cutlery, containers for transporting liquid products, washing baths, etc.
The stainless steel of some food brands has high anti-corrosion properties, resistance to aggressive food environments. Stainless steel products are highly durable, durable in operation.
Aluminum cookware. Aluminum, duralumin and their alloys are used as material for the manufacture of dishes. Aluminum and its compounds have poor solubility in a liquid aggressive food environment. Aluminum cookware, especially made from alloys, is exposed to salt, some organic acids found in vegetables, fruits, berries. In this case, the protective film of aluminum oxides, which protects the dishes from corrosion, dissolves in the liquid content. In this regard, it is not recommended to ferment cabbage, pickle cucumbers, prepare acidic cabbage soup in aluminum utensils, etc. To improve the anti-corrosion properties of aluminum utensils, modern processing methods are used - the inner surface is sanded, polished, varnished, made matte-silver, etc. aluminum alloys produce foil, which is widely used in the confectionery industry; varnished foil is used for packaging cheeses. The composition of aluminum alloys includes impurities of certain metals that can have a harmful effect on the human body, therefore, the impurities used are strictly standardized (zinc, lead, arsenic, copper, iron).
Crockery made of iron and cast iron. Iron is a common material for the manufacture of digesters, containers, equipment, buckets, pans, baking trays, enameled dishes. Iron is not resistant; it is easily susceptible to oxidation and the formation of compounds that dissolve in liquid food, causing a change in its color (darkening) and taste (metallic taste). Therefore, iron products must have protective coatings. Without coatings, only baking sheets and pans are used, in which food is prepared in the presence of fat (fat, covering the surface of iron, prevents the oxidizing effect of oxygen). For iron utensils, coatings of enamel, tin (tinning), zinc (galvanized utensils) are used.
Enameled dishes. It is an iron dish, the outer and inner sides of which are covered with enamel - an alloy (such as glass) of feldspar, soda, borax, sand, tin oxide. The enamel can be white or tinted (by adding oxides of manganese, chromium, etc.). Strict requirements are imposed on the preparation of enamels, especially those intended for internal coatings, since in case of violation of the formulation, compounds that cause food poisoning (lead, antimony, etc.) can be used as components. Enameled dishes are not used in public catering and trade enterprises, as they have low impact resistance and heat resistance - cracks and chips form when a sharp change in temperature and impact, exposing the iron. It is forbidden to use dishes with chips for cooking and storing food.
Ceramic tableware. Pottery includes clay, glazed (pottery), earthenware, porcelain and majolica dishes.
Glazed clay dishes. Pottery is currently not widely used. To make them clay is used, kilned in the oven. On the inner and outer sides of the dishes glaze is applied - an alloy of oxides of silicon, potassium, sodium and other metals, as well as lead oxide (litharge). For coatings of pottery, a special grade of fritted glaze with a lead content of about 12% should be used. Fritted glaze is very strong and does not contain easily soluble lead compounds. At industrial enterprises manufacturing enameled and pottery dishes, local bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological service must conduct strict quality control of enamels and glazes.
Earthenware and porcelain dishes. It is a clay product, slightly different from each other in chemical composition and manufacturing technology. Outside and inside, the products are covered with glaze. Glaze of earthenware products containing lead (to give shine) is not particularly durable. During the operation of products, a network of small cracks appears, chips are easily formed. The use of such utensils is not permitted.
Glaze containing soluble salts of lead should not be used for making dishes.
The glaze of porcelain ware has greater strength, hardness and resistance to acid.
From porcelain and faience make tableware and tea utensils.
Glassware. Glass is used to make glasses, wine glasses, cans, bottles and other products for contact with food products. Glass must be highly resistant to acids contained in products. There are special brands of heat-resistant glass, which are used for the manufacture of pots, pans used in everyday life. Glass of shock-resistant and acid-resistant grades is used for the manufacture of pipelines at dairies, wineries and other food industrial enterprises.
If the manufacturing technology is violated, air bubbles may appear in the thickness of the glass, which reduces the strength of the glass and increases the possibility of it entering food products. If there are many bubbles, the dishes are rejected. When chips appear on the upper edge, glass products should be rejected. Glassware made of glass with foreign inclusions is not allowed to be used, as they reduce the durability of the products.
Wooden dishes, containers, equipment. Wood is widely used for the manufacture of cutting boards, small equipment (stirrers, rolling pins), barrels, barrels, chairs (decks) for cutting meat and fish, etc. The tree does not adversely affect the quality of products, does not change their organoleptic and physical chemical properties, does not corrode, does not give harmful substances into the food mass. However, the tree has porosity, absorbs liquid substances, can be exposed to bacterial effects (mucus-forming bacteria, molds, etc.). In order to reduce or eliminate the ability to absorb liquid substances, wood products from the inside are impregnated or coated with varnishes or resins that are allowed for contact with food products. For the same purpose, wood products are lined with inside liners made of synthetic materials.
Wooden containers are used to store pickled and salted vegetables and mushrooms, salted fish and corned beef, tomato paste, butter, jam, feta cheese, sour cream, cottage cheese and other products.
Paper containers and packaging. Sheets are used as packaging material for solid foods. Disposable tableware (waxed glasses for ice cream and sour cream, plates, etc.) is made from paper pulp soaked with authorized paraffin. High-grade paper (parchment and parchment) is used for packaging fat-containing products - butter, cheese, herring, wafers, etc. This paper does not absorb moisture and grease, and prevents drying of products. Paper is increasingly being used in combination with synthetic materials.
For applying inscriptions and drawings to paper, paint is used that is approved for use by the bodies of the State Sanitary Inspection. On the surface of the product, the paint should not leave an imprint (curd curds) or impart an odor to it. The use of such paints should not be allowed. Also, the use of paints containing soluble toxic substances is not permitted.
For packing confectionery products, cardboard and corrugated cardboard are used - a type of paper made from straw or wood pulp and waste paper. Cardboard and corrugated cardboard are used for packaging products with a wrapper. To pack confectionery without wrappers, cardboard boxes inside should be glued or covered with parchment or parchment. A combination of cardboard and synthetic materials is currently in use.
Polymer materials. In the food industry, public catering and the retail and warehouse network, products from polymer materials are increasingly used.
Polymeric materials are used for the manufacture of machine parts and refrigeration units, pipelines, containers, packaging materials.
Polymeric materials (raw materials and products) are manufactured at different enterprises of the chemical industry and according to different technologies and can have different physicochemical properties. In this regard, the SES plays a large role in organizing and conducting preventive sanitary supervision over the release of products from polymeric materials and their use in food enterprises.
The advantages of products made of polymeric materials include their strength, lightness, ensuring good preservation of food products.
The disadvantages of polymeric materials include the ability to acquire negative properties over time - “grow old”. Under the influence of elevated temperatures, UV rays, oxygen, air and other factors, complex chemical transformations occur in polymers, as a result of which the properties of polymers deteriorate - strength, elasticity decreases, brittleness appears, surface tarnishes, fat and coloring substances are adsorbed on it, and after disinfection is preserved the smell of chlorine, in addition, low molecular weight toxic substances are formed in the polymer mass that have solubility in a liquid food environment and have an adverse effect ie on the human body.
In connection with the possibility of negative effects of polymers on the human body, it is recommended to use products in strict accordance with the purpose indicated by the mark on each product - “for cold water”, “for food”, “for hot dishes”, etc.
The following polymers are most widely used: polyolefins, polyvinyl chloride, fluoroplastics, polystyrenes, polyacrylates, aminos, polyethylene terephthalate (lavsan), polycarbonates, epoxy compounds, cellulose-based materials, rubber, combined compounds.
Polyolefins. This group includes polypropylene and polyethylene of low and high pressure. Polyethylene has a high chemical resistance to aggressive compounds, is waterproof, frost-resistant. Withstands temperatures from -15 ° C to 110 ° C. It is subject to aging under the influence of atmospheric oxygen and UV rays. Polyethylene in the form of films is used for packaging products of various kinds (bread, milk, fish, confectionery, bulk products, etc.). Bags made of polyethylene as inserts in barrels are used to store fish products in brine, pickled and salted vegetables. Sulphitated potatoes are transported in polyethylene bags. Bags with a capacity of 0.5 and 1 liter are used as containers for milk and dairy products. Polypropylene is used for the manufacture of lids for canning, trays used in catering, the manufacture of parts for dishwashers, etc.
Polyvinyl chloride. It has strength, hardness, chemical resistance, withstands temperatures from _io ° c to 65 ° C. Pipelines, equipment parts, and small containers for food products are made from polyvinyl chloride. From the variety of polyvinyl chloride, a shrink film of the type "Saran" is made, which is used in the food industry for packaging carcasses of birds and sausages. Another variety - polyvinyl alcohol - is used to make sausage casings and hard cheese coatings.
Ftoroplasty. Possess heat resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, durability. Used as coatings for frying pans.
Polystyrenes. They have hardness, moisture resistance, and are resistant to fats. The disadvantages include instability to shocks and temperatures above 80 ° C. Polystyrenes are used for the manufacture of packaging containers for cheeses, meat and dairy products, dishes, trays, graters, parts of refrigerators, etc.
Polyacrylates. Resistant to aggressive environments. A type of polyacrylate - organic glass - is used in the confectionery and baking industries as containers for dough, liquid yeast and fruit and berry masses. Parts for milking machines are made of plexiglass.
Aminoplasts. One polymer from this group - melalit - decorative laminated plastic - is used as the facing material for tables, walls in catering and trade.
Lavsan. It has strength, heat resistance, resistant to light and acids. Lavsan is used to filter milk, bags are sewn from it for pressing whey in the manufacture of cottage cheese.
Polyca rbonate. They are durable, resistant to aggressive environments (fruit juices, fats, alcohol, disinfectant solutions), do not change the color of the product. Withstand heating to 140 ° C. They are used for the manufacture of dishes for the nutrition of aircraft passengers.
Polyamides (nylon, caprolon). They are durable. The disadvantages include instability to fats, alkalis, mold and bacteria. Used for the manufacture of parts for creamers that are not in contact with the cream (caron), and parts of machines in contact with milk and meat (carolon).
Epoxy compounds. In the form of epoxy resins are part of the internal coatings of metal containers for wine, beer, juices, as well as in the composition of varnishes for coating cans from the inside. Resistant to alkalis, disinfectants, steaming.
Cellulose-based materials (cellophane, etc.). Resistant to low temperatures, fats. Do not have moisture resistance. Used for the manufacture of films. Three-layer cellophane is used for the manufacture of sausage casings. Nitro-coated cellophane is used for packaging pasta, fish cooking, ghee, popcorn, confectionery, and frozen foods. Plumbing materials are used to make plumbing equipment.
Rubber. Polymer materials obtained on the basis of natural and artificial rubber. They contain toxic fillers, their dissolution in the mass of the product and causes the toxicity of rubber products during aging. Gaskets and gaskets are prepared from rubber for machine parts. In the food industry, films based on rubber (escaplene, etc.) are used. The films are used for packaging frozen and hygroscopic products (freeze-dried) - fruits, as well as for culinary products and cheese without cheese.
Combined materials. Combined materials are widely used:
a combination of polymer films (usually polyethylene), cardboard, paper, foil - for packaging food concentrates;
multilayer films - cellophane-polyethylenes, lavsan-polyethylene;
a mixture of polyethylene wax and paraffin for coating paper and cardboard - for packaging butter, milk, bakery products and for the manufacture of disposable cups;
aluminum foil in combination with paper - for packing tea and other aromatic products.
1. What types of materials are used for contact with food?
2. What are the rules for the use of dishes and containers made of polymeric materials?
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HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF EQUIPMENT, CONTAINERS, TABLEWARE, PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRODUCTS
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