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Hygienic principles of design and construction of food facilities
The expansion of the network of food enterprises and the growth of food production are inextricably linked with the construction of new and reconstruction of existing facilities, bringing them to the modern level of their technical equipment. In such cases, the sanitary service bodies are obliged to ensure strict observance of the existing sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic rules and norms when allocating a land plot, during the design, construction and reconstruction, as well as commissioning of food enterprises. It's necessary:
• to create impeccable sanitary and epidemiological conditions for the production, storage and sale of food products;
• prevention of negative impact on the employees of the enterprise of harmful factors of the working environment (microclimate, noise, vibration, infrared radiation, flour dust, etc.);
• Prevention of the harmful effects of the facility on the environment and public health (gas, smoke, soot, noise, smell, etc.);
• elimination of contamination of the food object with industrial waste.
In accordance with the functions performed, food enterprises are divided into three groups.
Food industry enterprises - dairies, meat processing plants, sausages, confectioneries, breweries, canneries, bakeries, etc. that produce food products, which are sold later through the enterprises of the warehouse network and catering.
Catering enterprises - canteens, restaurants, cafes, bars, fast food enterprises, etc., providing the population with prepared food and culinary products, the bulk of which is eaten directly on the territory of this facility.
The enterprises of the trade and warehouse network - shops, markets, warehouses, bases, etc., providing storage and sale of food and non-food goods.
Depending on the functional purpose of the food enterprise, five groups of premises are distinguished:
• retail premises intended for public services.
At public catering facilities, these include the lobby, wardrobe, toilets and washrooms for visitors, a trading room, a buffet, a bar, a room for the sale of semi-finished products, ready-made lunches at home, etc .;
• production facilities - providing the technological process (hot shop, dispensing, storage rooms for meat, fish and vegetables, confectionery shop, washing for kitchen and tableware, etc.);
• warehouses - are intended for separate storage at certain temperature and humidity conditions of different in composition raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products (refrigerated chambers, pantries for vegetables and dry products, etc.), inventory, linen, etc .;
• administrative and living quarters - intended for staff of the enterprise (director’s office, accounting, sales and marketing department, dressing rooms, showers, toilets, woman’s personal hygiene room, rest room, health center, etc.);
• technical or auxiliary premises - ventilation chamber, switchboard, heat point, boiler room, boiler room, etc.
Each of these groups of enterprises has features in the organization and mode of operation and requires a special approach to design and construction. However, along with specific hygiene requirements, there are also general ones, without which a high sanitary culture of the work of any food enterprise cannot be ensured, no matter which group it belongs to. General requirements relate to the improvement of the territory, buildings, premises, industrial and sanitary equipment, inventory, etc.
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Hygienic principles of design and construction of food facilities
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