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Hygienic requirements for reviewing projects
Technical projects and working drawings for the construction of enterprises, buildings and structures are not subject to approval by the state sanitary supervision authorities if they are completed in accordance with applicable norms and rules (which must be confirmed by the chief engineer of the project in the form of an appropriate entry in the project materials). Such projects are coordinated only in terms of their connection with local conditions, taking into account the topography, climatic conditions, the height of the groundwater and the possibility of connecting the facility to the central water supply.
Obligatory agreement with the bodies of state sanitary supervision are subject to:
• materials with deviations from the existing norms and rules allowed in the process of developing individual technical construction projects, reconstruction and expansion of enterprises, buildings and structures;
• design decisions for which there are no approved norms and rules.
The duties of the state sanitary inspection bodies include conducting random control of the development of the project at all its stages.
Upon receipt of the project for review, a check is made for the availability of a full set of documentation provided for by sanitary legislation, including
• letters of application for consideration of the project;
• a draft to be considered, with an explanatory note and drawings attached;
• decisions of the local authority on the allotment of land for construction with a positive opinion of the state sanitary inspection body;
• permits of public utilities about the possibility of connecting the facility to the city water supply and sewage system (if this is not possible, you must obtain a conclusion from the local state sanitary authority on the places of water intake and drainage of wastewater with an indication of their quantity, composition and treatment methods);
• permits of the relevant business bodies to supply hot water, gas, electricity;
• a schedule for the construction and commissioning of individual facilities and sanitary facilities.
Reconstruction of a food enterprise can only be carried out with the permission of the sanitary inspection authorities.
The review of the project begins with a detailed study of the explanatory note, which should include: site improvement, groundwater standing level, site topography, the presence of buildings and other structures on the site, the composition and purpose of the premises, the interior decoration of the premises, the foundation waterproofing, and the rooms are waterproof designed technological process, designed equipment, production capacity, product range, number of shift workers, water supply, sewage, ra bills of consumption of cold and hot water, heating, ventilation, electric lighting, etc.
The general plan draws attention to the density of the construction site, the degree of greening of the territory, the presence and correct location of pedestrian paths and driveways for transport, the organization of traffic flows, a parking place, etc. A preliminary study of the master plan also allows you to get an idea of the relative position of buildings and structures located on the territory, taking into account their functional affiliation, the presence and sufficiency of sanitary gaps between them, the possibility of bringing various communications (water supply, sewage, etc.) to the designed buildings.
When considering plans and sections of the premises of food industry enterprises, the continuity of technological processes of production, the observance of flow in space and time, and the directions of movement of workers are determined. The presence or absence of a complete list of the relevant groups of premises, their orientation, the compliance of the areas and cubes of these premises with the established standards, the correct vertical arrangement of production, storage and household premises are noted.
When considering projects and schemes of sanitary equipment, the correctness of its placement, the adequacy and rationality of the points of intake of cold and hot water, drains for wastewater, ventilation devices, lamps, air conditioners, etc. are checked.
Certain requirements are imposed on the internal layout and equipment of food enterprises.
It is necessary to provide for the exclusion of oncoming flows:
• food and non-food cargo,
• raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products;
• clean and used containers, dishes, etc .;
• movement of staff of the enterprise and movement of visitors.
Production processes accompanied by air pollution of the working area with harmful emissions (gas, steam, moisture, dust, etc.) associated with noise and vibration should be carried out in isolated rooms. In one room, more harmful areas should be isolated from less harmful. Humid rooms and sanitary facilities should be located one above the other. It is not allowed to place sanitary facilities, washing baths, etc. over production and storage facilities intended for the manufacture and storage of food products. The placement of food production workshops in basements and basements is unacceptable, as this leads to contamination of food products with street dust and reduces their natural lighting.
All storage facilities should be as close as possible to the loading ones. Storage and loading facilities may be located in the basement. Storerooms (warehouses) of finished products should be as close as possible to the expedition. The expedition is recommended to be placed as far as possible from the loading, preferably on the opposite side of the building. During the expedition there should be a loading platform with a canopy. Inside the expedition, it is necessary to provide a separate small room or a place for the forwarder enclosed by a barrier, as well as a room for personnel accompanying the cargo, which should be equipped with a separate entrance from the platform, as well as a window opening facing the expedition.
Cooled chambers should be combined in one unit, at the entrance to which a special vestibule (gateway) is constructed. They should not be located above rooms with elevated temperature and humidity (boiler rooms, boiler rooms, etc.), and also under rooms where ladders are installed. At food enterprises located in residential buildings, it is not allowed to place refrigerated chambers directly above residential premises. Waste storage chambers must be refrigerated and have independent access to the yard of the enterprise, excluding any communication with other chilled chambers. Domestic premises should be located in industrial buildings in the sector allocated for this, separate from industrial premises, or in an annex to the industrial building.
In areas with a cold climate, household premises for employees of the enterprise located in a separate building must be connected to the production building with an insulated passage. Place household premises in such a way that workers in food shops do not pass through the production premises of non-food shops and vice versa.
Toilets must be placed both in the domestic sector and in the manufacturing sector. In multi-storey buildings, toilets can be placed across one floor if the number of employees on two adjacent floors does not exceed 30 people, and through two floors if no more than 10 people work on three adjacent floors.
In cases where the units of food enterprises are located in buildings of a different value (residential, administrative), they are isolated from other premises by fireproof walls and ceilings, and also should not have common entrances and exits with them.
Interior decoration and decoration should be simple, bright, easily accessible for cleaning. The floors are made smooth, non-slip, from waterproof light material. In production rooms with high water consumption in the floors, ladders are arranged, connected to sewer communications. Floors should also be done with a bias away from workplaces and the route of movement of workers. The walls of the rooms to a height of 1.8-2 m are finished with easily washable materials. Parts of the walls above the waterproof surface and ceilings are covered with white glue or lime. In those enterprises where the prevention of bacterial contamination of food products is of particular importance (dairies, etc.), it is recommended that the floors, ceilings and walls are waterproof.
In order to exclude the penetration of animals (rodents, etc.) into the food premises, during the design, it is necessary to provide for the foundation and lower sections of the walls to be made of material inaccessible to these pests. In addition, it is recommended to lay metal nets with openings of no more than 12 mm on the lower sections of the walls and under the upper floor covering, and to protect the windows of the basement storage rooms with a fine mesh. All openings and gaps in the places where water, sewer and gas pipes lie are subject to careful sealing.
Public catering facilities may be located in separate buildings or buildings for other purposes in accordance with applicable law. It is necessary to have a certain set of premises. The quantity and name of them for each type of enterprises are established in accordance with the norms and technical conditions of design. Premises should be grouped according to their functional purpose. The area of the premises should provide the ability to carry out the production process in the most favorable hygienic conditions, the convenience of customer service and the proper working conditions of the enterprise personnel.
The layout of the catering enterprise depends on its production capacity and is specified in each individual case. However, in any case, production facilities and facilities for serving visitors should be isolated from each other, and have separate entrances. The total composition of the premises can be determined by the capacity of the enterprise, depending on the number of seats. It is preferable that the windows of the facilities for serving visitors face south, and the hot shops and rooms for storing perishable products - to the north. Domestic premises and pantries should be located closer to the exit.
When considering plans and sections of the premises of public catering enterprises, it is evaluated:
• the necessary composition of the premises, their orientation and size;
• the feasibility of placing premises in order to ensure the accuracy of the technological process of processing raw materials, semi-finished products and the sale of finished products;
• compliance with flow and exclusion of contact: raw materials, semi-finished products and prepared food; clean and dirty dishes; enterprise personnel and visitors, food waste and finished products;
• the ability to provide enough cold and hot water, the necessary low temperatures, etc.
When considering projects of food trade enterprises, they determine the correct layout of premises from the point of view of separate storage and sale of products in relation to their physicochemical and organoleptic properties, as well as the provision of flow and the shortest way for products to enter the warehouse and from them to the packaging, trading floor, counter, etc.
After consideration of each project, a conclusion must be drawn up indicating the list of all violations of sanitary rules and norms found in the project and subject to elimination.
Depending on the results of the examination, the project in question may be:
• agreed - as appropriate to current sanitary rules and regulations;
• adopted - after making appropriate changes and additions to it (in this case, it is submitted for reconsideration);
• rejected - as containing gross violations of sanitary rules and norms.
State bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological service supervise the implementation of the necessary requirements in the process of construction and acceptance of finished food facilities. Such supervision consists in monitoring compliance of the construction according to the approved project - standard or individual, and in case of deviations from the design documentation - in taking the necessary measures up to the suspension of the ongoing construction. For acceptance and commissioning of the constructed food enterprise, a state acceptance committee is created, one of the members of which must necessarily be a representative of the sanitary-epidemiological service.
When accepting and commissioning, they pay attention to: uninterrupted operation of the water supply, sewage, heating, ventilation and other systems and devices provided by the project and of importance for the normal operation of the food enterprise; layout of premises and their decoration; installation of the planned equipment (technological, material handling, etc.) and its uninterrupted operation; layout of the enterprise territory, utility rooms, availability and condition of access roads, equipment of places for food intake.
When identifying deficiencies that are of sanitary importance, measures are taken to exclude the commissioning of the facility before eliminating the violations. At each stage of sanitary supervision of food enterprises, an appropriate administrative act must be drawn up in the prescribed form.
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Hygienic requirements for reviewing projects
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