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Hygienic requirements for natural light
Natural lighting is most favorable for vision, since sunlight is necessary for normal human life. Visible rays of the solar spectrum (400-760 microns) provide the function of vision, determine the natural biorhythm of the body, positively affect emotions, the intensity of metabolic processes; ultraviolet spectrum (290-400 microns) - stimulates the processes of metabolism, blood formation, tissue regeneration and has antirachitic (synthesis of vitamin D) and bactericidal action.
All rooms with a permanent stay of people should have, as a rule, natural light.
Natural lighting is created by direct, diffused and reflected sunlight. It can be lateral, upper, combined. Side lighting - through the light openings in the outer walls, the upper - through the light openings in the coating and lights, and combined - in the external walls and in the coatings.
The most hygienic side lighting penetrating through the windows, since the top light with the same glazing area creates less illumination of the room; in addition, light openings and lanterns located in the ceiling are less convenient for cleaning and require special devices for this purpose. It is possible to use secondary lighting, i.e. lighting through glazed partitions from a neighboring room equipped with windows. However, it does not meet hygienic requirements and is only allowed in rooms such as corridors, wardrobes, bathrooms, showers, utility rooms, and washing departments.
The design of natural lighting for buildings should be based on a detailed study of technological or other processes carried out indoors, as well as on the light-climatic features of the territory. At the same time take into account:
• characteristic of visual work; location of the building on the light climate map;
• required uniformity of natural light;
• location of equipment;
• the desired direction of incidence of the light flux on the working surface;
• the duration of the use of natural light during the day;
• The need for protection against the glare of direct sunlight.
As hygienic indicators of the natural illumination of the premises used:
The coefficient of natural light (KEO) is the ratio of natural light inside the room at the control points of measurement (at least 5) to the light outside the building (%). There are two groups of methods for determining KEO - instrumental and calculation.
In rooms with side lighting, the minimum value of the coefficient is normalized, and in rooms with overhead and combined lighting, the average. For example, KEO in trading floors with side lighting should be equal to 0.4-0.5%, with the top - 2%.
For catering enterprises in the design of side natural lighting, KEO should be: for halls, buffets - 0.4-0.5%; hot, cold, confectionery, pre-cooking and harvesting shops - 0.8-1%; washing kitchen and tableware - 0.4-0.5%.
The light coefficient is the ratio of the area of the glazed surface of the windows to the floor area.
In industrial, commercial and administrative premises, it should be at least -1: 8, in domestic - 1:10.
However, this coefficient does not take into account climatic conditions, architectural features of the building and other factors affecting the intensity of lighting. So, the intensity of natural lighting largely depends on the device and the location of the windows, their orientation to the cardinal points, the shading of windows by nearby buildings, green spaces.
The angle of incidence is the angle formed by two lines, one of which extends from the workplace to the upper edge of the glazed part of the window opening, the other horizontally from the workplace to the window. The angle of incidence decreases with distance from the window. It is believed that for normal illumination with natural light, the angle of incidence should be at least 27 °. The higher the window, the greater the angle of incidence.
The opening angle is the angle formed by two lines, one of which connects the workplace with the top edge of the window, the other with the highest point of the darkening object located in front of the window (opposing building, tree, etc.). With such a dimming, the illumination in the room may be unsatisfactory, although the angle of incidence and the light coefficient are quite sufficient. The angle of the hole should be at least 5 °.
The illumination of the premises is directly dependent on the number, shape and size of the windows, as well as on the quality and cleanliness of the glasses.
Contaminated glass with double glazing reduces natural light up to 50-70%, smooth glass holds 6-10% of the light, frosted - 60, frozen - up to 80%.
The room color is affected by the color of the walls: white reflects up to 80% of sunlight, gray and yellow - 40%, and blue and green - 10-17%.
For better use of the incoming light flux, walls, ceilings, and equipment should be painted in bright colors. Particularly important is the light color of window frames, ceilings, and the upper parts of the walls, which provide maximum reflected light rays.
Dramatically reduces the natural illumination of rooms cluttering light openings. Therefore, it is forbidden at enterprises to force windows with equipment, products, containers both inside and outside the building, and also to replace glass with plywood, cardboard, etc.
In warehouses, lighting is usually not provided, and in some cases it is undesirable (for example, in pantries for storing vegetables), and is not allowed (in refrigerators). However, for the storage of flour, cereals, pasta, food concentrates, dried fruits, natural lighting is appropriate.
With insufficient natural light, combined lighting is allowed, in which both natural and artificial light is used.
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Hygienic requirements for natural light
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