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Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food

Hygienic regulation is mandatory for all toxic substances entering the human body from the environment - air, water, soil, food, materials in contact with food, etc.

Any chemical is toxic under certain exposure conditions. Toxicity - the ability of a substance to harm a living organism. The dose of the substance, the duration of exposure, the mode and route of its entry into the body have the greatest effect on the human body.

The basic hygiene regulation is the maximum permissible concentration of harmful substances in various environmental objects.

MPC - the maximum permissible concentration of a substance, which, with daily exposure to the body for an indefinitely long time, does not cause deviations in the health of the present and subsequent generations. The concentration of the substance is taken into account in mg per volume or per mass of the object.

To establish MPC, an experimental justification of the following indicators is necessary:

• threshold concentration - the concentration with which ChVV begins to exert a toxic effect;

• subthreshold concentration - a concentration that does not have a toxic effect;

• maximum inactive concentration - equal to approximately 0.1 of the threshold concentration;

• safety factor - introduced to increase the safety of the substance (depending on the degree of toxicity of the substance, cumulation, etc. it can be from 2 to 2000).

For hygienic regulation of harmful chemicals in food, organoleptic, general hygiene, technological and toxicological indicators of harmfulness are used.

Rationing of harmful substances in food products consists of several stages:

Stage 1 - preliminary toxicological and hygienic assessment of the test substance, providing for the analysis of literature data on the properties of the studied substance and the characteristics of the process;

Stage 2 - determination of the resistance of a substance during cooking and storage, as well as possible products of its destruction and transformation;

Stage 3 - the study of the influence of a substance on the organoleptic properties of a food product and the establishment of a concentration of a substance that does not impair these properties;

Stage 4 - assessment of the possible effect of a substance on the biological value of food products with the determination of the threshold concentration by the general hygiene indicator of harmfulness;

Stage 5 - conducting an acute, subacute and chronic toxicological experiment in laboratory animals. The most sensitive to ChVV contained in food products are pregnant, lactating and feeding on breast milk animals. Chronic experience in establishing the maximum inactive and threshold doses of the test substance is carried out for 8-12 months or throughout the life of the animal receiving the studied substance with a diet.

Stage 6 - study of the possible long-term effects of a regulated substance (embryotoxic, gonadotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, allergenic, carcinogenic effects).
For this, it is necessary to study the reproduction functions of 3-4 generations of animals.

The information obtained at these stages is used to establish the allowable daily dose (DSD), the allowable daily intake (DSP) and the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of a substance in food products.

In food hygiene, the basic regulation of a regulated substance is the allowable daily dose.

The permissible daily dose (DSD) of a substance is the maximum dose, daily oral (from lat.per os - by mouth), which is harmless throughout a person’s life, i.e. It does not adversely affect the life and health of the present and future generations. DSD is expressed in mg per kg body weight.

Permissible daily intake (DSP) - determined by multiplying the value of the DSD by the person’s body weight. It characterizes the permissible amount of CHV in the diet (mg / day). The average body weight of an adult is taken equal to 60 kg, children - 30 kg.

Knowing the value of DSD, particleboard and the average set of foods in the daily diet, calculate the MPC of a harmful substance in those products in which it can be found.

MPC - the maximum permissible concentration, in mg of substance per kg of product, is determined by calculation:

MPC = (Particle Board x Ps) / (MPR x 100)

where: particleboard - allowable daily intake of a normalized substance;

PS - the actual or forecasted content of the substance in the product (in percent of DSD or the total content of the substance in the products);

MPR - the mass of this product in a standard daily diet, kg

MPC in relation to food products is now commonly referred to as MDL (maximum acceptable level) and DE (acceptable level). According to the content and methods of substantiation, the values ​​of MPC and MRL, ДУ are completely identical.

Recently, standards have been used that have become known as SHOES — approximate safe levels of exposure to a harmful substance. They are developed using accelerated and calculated express methods. The validity of the SECS is determined by 2-3 years, during which the MPC is developed according to the usual method.

If CVP has high toxicity (LD50 less than 50 mg / kg), the ability to cumulate, or pronounced carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic properties, then it is either not allowed to be deliberately used, for example, as a food supplement, or the area or duration of use is limited. It is also necessary that such a FVC is not contained in objects from which its migration to a food product is possible (fertilizers, pesticides, feed additives, polymeric materials in contact with food, etc.). In cases where such dangerous substances are of natural origin, for example, compounds of mercury, lead, cadmium, then their content is compared with the background in normal geochemical provinces. The concentration of these substances in the diet should not exceed the DSD and MPC established for them.
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Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food

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