about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Hygienic significance of the soil. Types of soils, their hygienic characteristics. Soil microorganisms. Water purification

Soil - the surface layer of the earth, rich in mineral and organic compounds.

Mineral part: * sand; *clay; *silicon; *lime.

Organic part: humus (humus) - the remains of plant and animal organisms. The organic part of the soil is gradually turning into mineral due to the activity of microorganisms - orderlies who decompose the organic part.

The soil is also inhabited by a huge number of microorganisms. The soil consists of particles of various sizes with air gaps between them.

The composition and structure of P are:

* Sand;

* Clay;

* Lime;

* Peat.

Soil structure is important, and soil properties depend on the size of suspended particles:

* The presence of air in the soil ensures its breathability. It depends on the size of the soil particles - the larger the particles, the greater the air permeability. If the oxygen supply is increased, the oxidation process is more intense, i.e. decomposition into mineral parts of organic residues. A sign of insufficient breathability is an unpleasant smell in the soil (ammonia is formed);

* Water capacity - the ability to retain water in itself. The smaller the soil particles, the greater the water capacity. The most water-intensive soils are silty, peaty;

* Hygroscopicity - the ability of the soil to absorb and draw water vapor from the air. Fine-grained soils possess fine-grained soils - clay, peat, humus.

* Acidity - due to the presence of H + ions in the soil.
Increased acidity negatively affects the development of plants and many microorganisms. The least acidity has calcareous soil.

The soil is polluted with organic substances and is a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms. The largest number of organisms in the first 2 cm of soil and greatly reduced to 6 cm. The largest epidemic soil is observed in settlements without sewage. As well as in soils that do not have good water flow and with a lack of solar (ultraviolet) lighting. In connection with the increase in the chemicalization of agricultural production, there is a very acute question about the disposal of pesticides.

Soil contamination with dysentery and helminth infections is especially dangerous.

Ascaridosis is a parasite of the small intestine. The egg of this parasite enters the intestine, the egg shell dissolves and the larva emerges, it penetrates the intestinal wall and enters the bloodstream, then the liver, heart, and the pulmonary circulation. Very dangerous products of the excretion of these worms.

Microorganisms play an extremely important role in the processes of soil self-cleaning, i.e. in the processes of transformation of organic substances that are epidemiologically dangerous, and inorganic compounds - mineral salts and gases.

In garden fertile land there are pathogens of gas gangrene and tetanus.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Hygienic significance of the soil. Types of soils, their hygienic characteristics. Soil microorganisms. Water purification

  1. The history of the development of sanitary protection of the soil. Indicators characterizing the basic properties of the soil, their hygienic value
    In the history of hygiene, the most ancient preventive measures to protect human health were measures aimed at the sanitary protection of the soil. At that time, people walked barefoot, slept on the ground or in earthen shelters, breathed soil air, drank ground water, and finally ate foods grown on the soil. The problem of the effect of soil on human health has interested mankind with
  2. Hygienic importance of soil composition and properties
    The soil consists of solid particles and free spaces between them, filled with air or water. Soil particles with a diameter of more than 3 mm include stones and gravel, from 1 to 3 mm - coarse sand and less than 1 mm - fine sand, clay, dust, silt. From a hygienic point of view, it is important to know the basic properties of the soil in order to be able to conclude whether this or that soil will be healthy or unhealthy. These include
  3. Hygienic value of the soil
    Soil is a huge natural laboratory in which the most diverse complex processes of destruction and synthesis of organic substances continuously occur, new inorganic compounds are formed, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminth eggs die. The soil is used for the treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater, liquid and municipal solid waste,
  4. Indicators of the sanitary state of the soil and their hygienic value
    The sanitary state of the soil is a combination of its physical, physico-chemical and biological properties that determine the safety of the soil in an epidemic and chemical sense. Assessment of the sanitary state of the soil, its level of pollution and the degree of danger to human health is based on the results of laboratory tests: sanitary-physical, sanitary-chemical, physical-chemical,
  5. Soil as an environmental factor. The role of soil in the transmission of epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases. Soil pollution and self-cleaning
    The study of soil, its assessment of various indicators can conditionally be divided into 4 stages. I. The Dopaster period (until 1852). The central point of this period is the localistic theory of Pettenkofer, who believed that all epidemics are closely linked to the mechanical composition of the soil, the content of carbon dioxide and the amount of organic substances. Unaware of infectious agents
  6. Sources of soil pollution, their hygienic characteristics
    Soil pollutants, as defined by WHO experts, are chemicals, biological organisms (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths) and their waste products that occur in the wrong place, at the wrong time and in the wrong amount. Soil pollution should be understood only as the content of chemical and biological pollutants in it, which
  7. Self-cleaning of the soil and sanitary protection of the soil
    Self-cleaning of the soil is a transformation aimed at restoring the original state of the soil. Self-cleaning is of great hygiene and epidemiological importance. Soil is a natural environment for waste disposal. It detoxifies (neutralizes, destroys, turns into non-toxic compounds) the bulk of incoming exogenous organic
  8. Soil self-cleaning
    The soil, especially its upper layers, is constantly polluted with all kinds of waste hazardous to human health, and if it did not have the ability to neutralize them, life on Earth would become impossible. The soil turns epidemiologically hazardous organic substances into inorganic minerals, humus, gases and water through mineralization, nitrification and
  10. Hygienic significance of water
    The hygienic significance of water is determined primarily by the physiological need for a person in it. Water, like air and food, is that element of the external environment, without which life is impossible. A person without water can live only 5-6 days. This is because the human body is on average 65% water. Moreover, the younger the person, the higher the relative density of water in his
  11. Hygienic and biological significance of water
    Water is of great importance to meet the physiological, sanitary-hygienic and economic needs of a person. Water is necessary for a person to maintain the normal composition of the body, in which it contains about 60% (by weight). It is located in the cells of the body, in intercellular tissue fluid, lymph, blood, digestive juices, in the following amounts: 72% - muscles 97% -
  12. Epidemiological significance of the soil
    The soil is of great epidemiological importance. The causative agents of many infectious and parasitic diseases can be located and transmitted to humans by direct contact and indirect means. The transmission factors of pathogens are: dust, soil contaminated hands, food products (vegetables, fruits, berries, leafy greens, mushrooms, etc.), water, equipment, implements, dishes, containers, etc.
  13. Water as a factor in the environment, its hygienic and epidemiological significance. Rationing the quality of drinking water
    The drinking water supply development program is an integral part of the plan for the socio-economic development of territories within the Russian Federation. Water is essential for sustaining life and it is therefore important to provide consumers with good quality water. As you know, the human body consists of 65% of water and even a slight loss of it leads to serious health conditions. Upon loss
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019