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STATE SANITARY SUPERVISION IN THE USSR
The functions of state sanitary supervision are defined by the "Fundamentals of the legislation of the USSR and the Union republics on health care" (1970) and the "Regulation on state sanitary supervision in the USSR", approved by the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated 05.31.73 (No. 361).
Sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population of the USSR is ensured by comprehensive sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic measures aimed at eliminating and preventing pollution of the external environment - water bodies, soil and atmospheric air; to improve working conditions, training, life and leisure of the population, prevention and reduction of morbidity, promotion and the formation of a healthy lifestyle of the population.
State sanitary supervision in the USSR is carried out by the bodies and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service of the USSR Ministry of Health and the health ministries of the Union republics in the form of preventive and ongoing sanitary supervision of sanitary and preventive and anti-epidemic measures, compliance with ministries, departments, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and citizens of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic rules and norms.
The system of bodies and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service includes the Main Sanitary and Prevention Directorate and the Main Epidemiological Directorate of the USSR Ministry of Health and the ministries of health of the Union republics; republican sanitary and epidemiological stations (SES); regional, regional, district, city and district SES; Basin, port and linear SES in water transport. SES is an independent sanitation
educational institution (has its own cost estimate), is administratively subordinate to the relevant health authority, and for the functions of state sanitary supervision, to a higher authority or sanitary and epidemiological service institution. The management of the SES is carried out by the head doctor of the SES (chief state sanitary doctor of the administrative territory).
The Sanitary and Epidemiological Service is headed by the USSR Chief State Sanitary Doctor (USSR Deputy Minister of Health); the chief state sanitary doctors of the Union and Autonomous Republics (deputy health ministers of the Union and Autonomous Republics); the chief state sanitary doctors of the territories, regions, districts, cities and regions (deputy heads of the respective health departments or deputy chief doctors of the areas); chief state sanitary doctors of pools, ports and linear sections.
The powers of the bodies and institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service are determined by the legislation of the USSR.
The Ministry of Health of the USSR, in accordance with the general management scheme, ensures the effective use of the industry’s potential in the field of state sanitary supervision for the development in the prescribed manner of all-Union instructional, methodological, regulatory and other guidance documents (sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-anti-epidemic rules and norms); project conclusions, etc .; monitoring compliance with sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-anti-epidemic requirements during the construction and reconstruction of facilities; the use of new chemicals, tools and methods in the production and processing of food; use in practice of agricultural production and animal husbandry chemical plant protection products, growth stimulants; introduction of polymer materials and other chemical products into the national economy; consideration and approval of draft regulatory and technical documents for new types of raw materials, water for household drinking purposes, food, industrial products, construction materials, containers and packaging materials; the introduction of new technological processes, types of equipment, instruments and work tools; coordination of proposals on the teaching workload and the mode of classes in childcare facilities and schools; the implementation of measures for the sanitary protection of the USSR from the introduction of infectious diseases and ensuring epidemic well-being; in accordance with applicable law, coordinates the activities of departmental medical and other institutions on sanitary and epidemiological services for the population.
Bodies and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service carry out state sanitary supervision within the territory served by the state bodies, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and citizens of the legislation of the USSR, Union and Autonomous Republics and decisions of the Councils of People's Deputies, as well as orders and instructions of the Ministry Health of the USSR, ministries of health of the Union, autonomous republics and local health authorities on sanitary-hygiene scientific and epidemiological issues.
State sanitary supervision is carried out by bodies and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service on the principle of integration and interaction with bodies and institutions of ministries and departments that monitor nature protection, with the wide involvement of the population, trade union asset, other public organizations, public councils, scientific medical societies, an asset Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, etc.
The rights and obligations of the sanitary doctor and epidemiologist are set forth in the "Regulation on State Sanitary Inspection in the USSR", the regulations on the structural units of the SES and the instructions for the relevant sections (profile) of work.
According to the provisions on the assistant to the sanitary doctor and the assistant to the epidemiologist (No. 726-68; 516-65), persons with completed secondary education are appointed to the position of assistant. The assistant of the sanitary doctor and epidemiologist works under the direction and control of the specialized sanitary doctor (in occupational health, community hygiene, food hygiene, etc.).
D.), an epidemiologist.
The main tasks of the assistant sanitary doctor are the implementation of current and preventive sanitary supervision of the implementation by enterprises, institutions, organizations and citizens of hygiene standards, sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-anti-epidemic rules, requirements, decrees, orders and orders of legislative bodies on sanitary and epidemiological issues assigned to them objects of supervision; for the prevention and elimination of pollution of surface and groundwater used by the population for drinking, cultural and domestic purposes, pollution of soil and atmospheric air with harmful industrial emissions and household waste; for hygienic indicators of the quality of nutrition of the population; compliance with hygiene standards and sanitary-hygienic rules in the development of urban and rural populated areas, the construction and operation of industrial enterprises, residential and public buildings, catering and trade facilities, institutions for children and adolescents, clubs, cinemas and other institutions; for the working conditions of the population, including those employed in agricultural production; for measures to ensure radiation safety of the population.
In accordance with the main tasks, the assistant medical officer keeps a record of controlled objects of supervision and their sanitary condition; carries out systematic monitoring of the implementation of requirements and proposals to address sanitary and epidemiological issues at the facilities; conducts, on the instructions of the sanitary doctor, examinations of controlled objects using laboratory and instrumental research methods; informs the sanitary doctor about the results of the examinations and the necessary proposals for conducting recreational and other activities; conducts sanitary-educational work among the population and employees of controlled facilities (conversations, distribution of literature and posters on sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic work, demonstration of filmstrips, etc.); assists the medical doctor in the preparation and management of the work of public sanitary inspectors; participates in the analysis of complaints and applications of the population on sanitary and epidemiological issues of its competence.
The assistant of the sanitary doctor takes part in the preparation of proposals on the prohibition (suspension) of operation of controlled facilities in connection with the revealed violations of the requirements of sanitary norms and rules that create an unfavorable sanitary-hygienic and epidemic situation or a threat to the health of the staff of the facility, the population of the territory; on resolving issues regarding the suitability of food products for nutrition and the conditions for processing conditionally suitable food products or the disposal (destruction) of food products deemed unsuitable.
The assistant sanitary doctor participates in the preparation of work reports (selection of necessary materials, development and preparation of tables, graphs, etc.); systematically improves his professional knowledge.
The assistant to the sanitary doctor has the right to visit the objects of supervision at any time of the day and present, within the limits of his competence, to the heads of enterprises, organizations and institutions, as well as to individual citizens, binding on the proposal to eliminate sanitary violations; require information and documents necessary to determine the sanitary condition of the facility; to extract samples (food, items, materials, etc.) for laboratory analysis and hygienic examination; if necessary, conduct organoleptic studies of food products with the simultaneous presentation of the results; to draw up acts of sanitary inspection and the “Protocol on violation of sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-anti-epidemic rules” (see form No. 309 / у) for issuing a decision of the chief medical officer on imposing a fine; to make entries in the sanitary journal at the objects of supervision; to suspend the sale of substandard products identified during the examination (before determining their suitability for sale by a sanitary doctor), to denature or destroy unsuitable food products in accordance with the decision of the chief medical officer.
The assistant of the sanitary doctor monitors, on the instructions of the sanitary doctor, the observance of the “Instructions on mandatory preliminary admission to work and periodic medical examinations” (approved by the USSR Ministry of Health 24. 12. 87, No. 4538-87, agreed with the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions on June 6, 88, No. 14-4A / 2869) for food enterprises, water supply facilities, child care facilities, etc .; the procedure for conducting periodic medical examinations of persons employed in work with harmful working conditions, and adolescents (Order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR No. 700 of 19. 06. 84).
The assistant epidemiologist of the sanitary and epidemiological department, the sanitary-epidemiological department of the district hospital in the rural area organizes and implements anti-epidemic and preventive measures, conducts an epidemiological examination of foci of infectious and parasitic diseases under the supervision of a doctor-epidemiologist and measures to eliminate them; checks the implementation of the proposals of the doctor-epidemiologist in medical preventive, child and other institutions; controls the timely and high-quality implementation of preventive vaccinations, the storage and expenditure of bacterial preparations in medical and preventive, children's and other institutions; maintains medical documentation on epidemiological issues and the development of materials for epidemiological analysis; carries out sanitary-educational work in the outbreaks to prevent infectious and parasitic diseases; participates in the training of public sanitary inspectors and their involvement in anti-epidemic measures.
The assistant epidemiologist systematically raises and improves his knowledge in the specialty.
Upon presentation of an official certificate, an assistant epidemiologist has the right to visit medical and preventive children and other institutions.
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STATE SANITARY SUPERVISION IN THE USSR
- Instruction on the procedure for the implementation by bodies and institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service of the state sanitary supervision of the sanitary condition of health facilities
(Approved by Order of the USSR M3 of March 23, 76 No. 228) In accordance with the Regulation on State Sanitary Inspection in the USSR, approved by Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated May 31, 73 No. 361, the sanitary and epidemiological service is entrusted with the supervision of sanitary and epidemiological control events and compliance by institutions and institution managers
- State sanitary supervision of the sanitary protection of water bodies and wastewater treatment
The state sanitary supervision of the sanitation of settlements and the sanitary status of reservoirs of settlements provides for: 1. Identification and accounting of objects at which wastewater is generated, determination of their volume, the required cleaning efficiency, the place of possible release into reservoirs or the method of disposal. 2. Compilation and timely addition of a sanitary treatment passport
- State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance
State sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of the Russian Federation is a system of bodies and institutions that ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population. Sanitary and epidemic well-being - a set of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic measures aimed at preventing and eliminating environmental pollution, and improving
- State sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of soil and cleaning of settlements
Sanitary protection of the soil provides for: measures to prevent its pollution by household and industrial solid and liquid wastes, mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other exogenous chemicals; supervision of the correct structure, maintenance and operation of facilities for the disposal, elimination and disposal of waste; safe use controls
- BODIES AND SERVICES OF STATE SANITARY SUPERVISION OF THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF UKRAINE.
Sanitary supervision of the nutrition of the population is part of the state sanitary inspection in Ukraine, which is carried out in accordance with the “Fundamentals of the legislation of Ukraine on health care”, approved by the Decree of the Supreme Council of Ukraine No. 2802-XII of November 19, 1992. This decision states that prior to bringing the legislation of Ukraine on health,
- State sanitary supervision in the field of atmospheric air protection
Preventive state sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of atmospheric air is sanitary supervision carried out by bodies and agencies of the sanitary and epidemiological service at the stage of selection and allotment of a land plot for the construction (or reconstruction) of industrial facilities, sanitary examination of design materials, control over the construction of industrial facilities and the introduction of
- State sanitary supervision and laboratory control in the field of water supply in populated areas
In accordance with the current legislation, the state executive authorities, local and regional self-government bodies are required to provide residents of populated areas with high-quality drinking water in sufficient quantities (Law of Ukraine "On Ensuring Sanitary and Epidemic Welfare of the Population", Article 18). To solve the problem of rational water supply in populated areas
- STATE SANITARY SUPERVISION
- State sanitary supervision of the planning, development and improvement of populated areas
One of the basic principles of the sanitary-epidemiological institutions is the implementation of sanitary supervision of the planning and development of populated areas. The rights and obligations of the sanitary and epidemiological service in the field of sanitary surveillance are determined by the "Fundamentals of the legislation of Ukraine on health care", the law of Ukraine "On ensuring sanitary and epidemic well-being
- State sanitary supervision of the construction and operation of residential and public buildings
Control over the construction and operation of residential and public buildings occupies a significant place in the work of a doctor in communal hygiene. Preventive and current sanitary supervision is carried out in accordance with the law of Ukraine "On ensuring the sanitary and epidemic well-being of the population" (1994); "Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses" (1984, as amended and
- Rules for conducting control measures in the implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance
Control measures during the implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance are carried out in accordance with Federal Law of March 30, 1999 N 52-ФЗ “On the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population” by officials of bodies and institutions authorized to carry out state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. When conducting control activities
- SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SUPERVISION AND SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL LEGISLATION
An effective and efficient system of state regulation and control of food quality and safety has developed in Russia, which is based on an integrated approach to products, assessment and regulation of food quality at all stages of its production, processing, storage, transportation and sale. This system includes bodies of state supervision and control:
- MAIN DIRECTIONS OF PREVENTIVE AND CURRENT STATE SUPERVISION OF FOOD ENTERPRISES.
According to functions, decisions and specific tasks, state sanitary supervision is usually divided into preventive and current. Preventive sanitary supervision includes monitoring compliance with sanitary and hygienic norms and rules when: 1. Planning for the development of a network of catering establishments; 2. The development of design standards for public catering enterprises (SNiP);
- Organizational and legal foundations of state sanitary legislation
Sanitary supervision of the nutrition of the population, being a part of state sanitary supervision in our country, is carried out in accordance with the "Fundamentals of the legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on public health" and the "Regulation on state sanitary supervision in the USSR", approved by the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 361 of 31.05 .73 the Decision determined that the state
- Organization of sanitary supervision of toys, clothes and shoes
Preventive sanitary supervision is carried out at the level of the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the ministries of health of the Union republics. Their functions include the approval of regulatory and technical documentation (GOSTs, OSTs, TU) for the manufacture of new samples of toys, clothes, shoes and other goods for children; expert hygienic assessment of raw materials, materials and new product samples with
- SANITARY AND PARASITOLOGICAL SUPERVISION OF OBJECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The causative agents of parasitic diseases, as mentioned above, are widespread in the environment and can survive in it for a long time, while maintaining their invasiveness. In this regard, in our opinion, sanitary-parasitological surveillance (SPN) of environmental objects is an important component of preventive work in cases of parasitosis. Sanitary and parasitological surveillance
- ORGANIZATION OF WORK ON SANITARY SUPERVISION IN THE FIELD OF LABOR HYGIENE
Tasks: sanitary supervision of measures to improve working conditions, prevent and reduce occupational morbidity of workers; analysis of the sanitary condition of the facilities, development of relevant requirements and monitoring of their implementation. Objects: industrial enterprises, construction organizations, power plants, automobile enterprises, television and
- Organization of laboratory parasitological surveillance
Для организации и проведения комплексных санитарно-оздоровительных и профилактических мероприятий необходимо определить эпидемически значимые объекты окружающей среды, экстенсивные показатели их обсеменения возбудителями паразитарных болезней, выявить конкретно для каждого из них источники и пути обсеменения. Эпидемически значимые объекты окружающей среды на местах для проведения лабораторных