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State sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of soil and cleaning of settlements

Sanitary protection of the soil provides for: measures to prevent its pollution by household and industrial solid and liquid wastes, mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other exogenous chemicals; supervision of the correct structure, maintenance and operation of facilities for the disposal, elimination and disposal of waste; control over the use of safe land reclamation methods and their rational use.

When conducting current and preventive sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of the soil of populated areas, the hygienist is guided by legislative and official documents.

Preventive sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of the soil and cleaning of settlements includes the participation of a hygienist:

1) in the allotment of land for the construction of facilities for the collection, disposal, disposal and disposal of solid and liquid household waste;

2) in the assessment of sanitation schemes for populated areas;

3) in the sanitary examination of the general scheme for cleaning populated areas;

4) in the examination of construction projects for specialized auto farms, facilities for the disposal and disposal of solid and liquid waste, in monitoring the progress of construction and acceptance of these facilities into operation;

5) in coordination of maximum permissible levels of application and conditions for the use of pesticides;

6) in the allotment of land for warehouses of pesticides and mineral fertilizers, sites for pickling grain, processing points for automobile and air transport;

7) in the examination of projects of warehouses for storing chemical plant protection products and facilities for their disposal, in the supervision of their construction and commissioning.

One of the main tasks of preventive sanitary supervision is the selection of a land plot for the construction of facilities for the collection, storage, disposal, disposal and disposal of waste. It provides for the solution of three main tasks:

1) assessment of the adequacy of the area allocated to the land;

2) clarification of the possibility of establishing the SPZ of the required size between the indicated structures and residential (public) buildings and water intake structures;

3) assessment of the suitability of the land by soil and hydrogeological conditions (type of soil, its filtration capacity, level of groundwater, in some cases - the direction and speed of the ground flow).

Assessing the scheme of sanitary cleaning of a settlement, a hygienist should first of all know the degree of improvement, namely the presence or absence of sewage, since this will determine the choice of one of three possible options for the disposal of solid and liquid waste:

1) in a completely sewer village, all liquid and partially crushed solid waste is fused along the sewer network, and an export system is used to remove most solid waste (sanitary treatment);

2) in a partially sewer settlement, sewage is used to remove liquid waste from the sewer part of the city, and an export system (sewage disposal) is used from the non-sewage part; for solid waste removal from the whole territory of the city - an export system (sanitary treatment);

3) in a non-canalized settlement, an export system is used to remove both solid and liquid wastes, that is, sanitary cleaning and sewage disposal.

In relation to the adopted scheme of sanitary cleaning of a settlement, a hygienist assesses the estimated need for facilities for the collection, temporary storage, disposal and disposal of waste.

The main task of preventive sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of the soil and cleaning of populated areas is the examination of draft master schemes for cleaning populated areas. In the practice of a hygienist, two situations are possible: 1) examination of an independent project of a general cleaning scheme; 2) examination of the draft general cleaning scheme as a separate section as part of the planning and reconstruction of the settlement. Most often, the hygienist controls the organization and implementation of a planned and regular cleaning system. If in the first case the hygienist must evaluate the correctness of the organization of sanitary cleaning, then in the second - he needs to take an active part in its implementation.

The general scheme of work that a hygienist must adhere to during the examination of the draft general scheme for cleaning a settlement includes several stages.

1. Verification of the completeness of the submitted materials. (The draft master purification scheme consists of an explanatory note, graphic material and applications).

2. Selection and familiarization with official current regulatory documents, on the basis of which a sanitary examination is carried out.

3. Familiarization with the passport data of the project: name, organization-developer, authors, year of development.

4. Acquaintance with the characteristics of the settlement (population, state of the housing stock, its improvement, the number and capacity of public institutions, public catering and public services, the total area of ​​sidewalks and carriageways), natural and climatic indicators (average annual temperature, rainfall , terrain, groundwater standing level, territories unsuitable for agriculture), indicators of the incidence of intestinal infections and helmin eskers. This preliminary stage of work is necessary to familiarize yourself with the sanitary situation in the village and make effective and informed decisions on the implementation of sanitary cleaning measures.

5. Justification of the system of disposal of solid and liquid wastes from the territory of the settlement.

6. Evaluation of the introduction of a scheduled regular cleaning system. The general scheme should include the procedure for the introduction of scheduled regular cleaning of a settlement, the priority of territory coverage and calendar terms. First of all, it should be envisaged to introduce cleaning in areas of the city with high-rise buildings and high population density, as well as in areas of the city with an increased incidence of intestinal infections and gel-mintosis.

7. Verification of calculations of the amount of solid waste generated in the territory covered by the planned-regular treatment system. When checking the calculations, average and differentiated norms of waste accumulation are used. Under the average norm should be understood the average amount of household waste that accumulates in the village per 1 inhabitant per year, regardless of the conditions of formation. The differentiated norm takes into account the conditions for the accumulation of municipal solid waste and represents the amount that accumulates during the year at this facility per unit of account (1 person for residential buildings, 1 bed in a hospital, etc.).

The average accumulation rates are used in calculating the need for specialized vehicles, to justify the area for waste disposal, disposal and elimination sites, when determining the amount of financial costs for the implementation of sanitation measures, etc. Differentiated accumulation rates are used in organizing sanitary cleaning for specific facilities, as well as when calculating for work performed on waste disposal. In large cities, the average rate of accumulation of solid waste is from 0.5 to 0.8 m3 per year per 1 resident.

8. Evaluation of the choice of methods for the disposal, elimination and disposal of solid waste. When choosing methods of waste disposal, the hygienist must adhere to the following hygiene principles: the elimination of unorganized landfills, the organization of organized cleaning methods (advanced landfills, composting fields), the disposal and disposal of waste by industrial methods (waste processing and incineration plants).

9. Hygienic assessment of equipment and devices of individual facilities for the disposal and elimination of solid waste. In the implementation of this stage of the examination, it is necessary first of all to check the correspondence of the quantity of waste received for the neutralization of the productivity of the structure. Examples of performance calculations for some structures are given in table. 55.

TABLE 55 Calculation of the productivity of facilities for waste disposal TABLE 55 Calculation of the performance of facilities for waste disposal

It should be remembered that it is necessary to include measures for the conservation and further reclamation of landfills or improved landfills for municipal solid waste in the sanitation project of the settlement. After the landfill’s productivity has been exhausted, in the absence of a clear and economically feasible scheme for its closure, it can pose a significant epidemic and environmental hazard, become a source of spread of infections, and the entry into the environment of various chemical pollutants.

Therefore, when closing the landfill, you must:

1) immediately stop the operation of the landfill when it is filled at full capacity in accordance with the project;

2) eliminate foci of spontaneous combustion of garbage;

3) overlap the surface and side walls of the landfill, consisting of debris, with a layer of soil with a thickness of at least 1.5-2 m;

4) carry out remediation (restoration) measures of the forestry sector;

5) organize monitoring (observation) of the sanitary condition of the landfill after closure and facilities around it.

Since the humification of organic substances in the thickness of the landfill and the neutralization of spore-forming forms of pathogenic microorganisms can last 20-25 years, it is advisable to create forests in the landfill with the prospect of organizing recreational and landscape zones.

An important point of the current sanitary inspection is the organization of control over the landfill and the surrounding area, both during the operation of the facility and after its closure.
Landfill control is carried out in four directions:

1) emission of gaseous substances (qualitative composition of emissions; gas composition of the soil, i.e., composition of soil air outside the landfill; quality of atmospheric air around the landfill;

2) effluents (the amount of filtrate formed on the foundation of the landfill; the amount of surface effluents discharged from its territory; the qualitative composition of surface effluents; the qualitative composition of the filtrate after treatment at local treatment facilities);

3) water (quality of groundwater and surface water outside the landfill);

4) shrinkage (degree and rate of shrinkage of waste after landfill closure).

A relatively new method both in world practice and in Ukraine is the so-called landfill rehabilitation, when excavation removes the contents of old, spent landfills (without or without final coating) in order to prepare a site for new construction and the extraction of useful material (black and colored metals, plastic, rubber, etc.). The shortage of suitable territories for the construction of new landfills is one of the reasons for the innovative process of rehabilitation of landfills that are closed for the storage of waste.

Advantages of this method:

1) complete disposal of landfills, land reclamation for reuse;

2) increase the technical level of the landfill in accordance with modern standards;

3) reducing the size of the landfill in order to reduce its environmental impact;

4) the ability to prevent costs associated with the organization of monitoring the impact of landfills on the environment;

5) disposal of biodegradation products of organic substances that can be used as a coating for landfills. The rehabilitation method, which has been successfully used in countries with economies in transition, requires hygienic justification and the development of regulatory documents regarding the sanitary and epidemiological safety of personnel and environmental protection.

Control over the collection, storage and disposal of solid waste is entrusted to public utilities, housing maintenance offices and internal affairs bodies. The police through the apparatus of district commissioners should conduct daily supervision of the maintenance of streets, squares, markets, parks, stadiums and other public places, as well as the sanitary condition of households. The hygienist selectively familiarizes himself with the cleaning steps, collects factual material for the development of measures aimed at rationalizing the waste collection, storage and disposal system, and justifies proposals submitted for approval by city or regional executive committees.

Current sanitary supervision is carried out in accordance with the annual work plan approved by the chief state sanitary doctor of the district. Highly effective ongoing sanitary surveillance of sanitary cleaning of populated areas provides for:

• monitoring the implementation of measures to improve the sanitation of populated areas (organizing or expanding the coverage of a locality with a planned and regular cleaning system, improving the availability of waste bins and specialized vehicles, introducing effective methods of neutralizing and disposing of waste, organizing supervision of measures to clean populated areas and conducting sanitary -pro-lighting work);

• timely posing before local authorities of issues of current or long-term planning of measures to improve the sanitation of a settlement;

• administrative influence on officials and homeowners. Waste disposal and disposal facilities (third element

cleaning) are mandatory communal facilities for which the hygienist must carry out routine sanitary supervision. The following dates for visiting these facilities are recommended: composting plants for composting in rural areas - twice a year (October and April for the 1st and 2nd climatic regions); landfill sites, improved landfills, biothermal chambers, composting fields, cattle burial grounds, specialized motor transport facilities - once a quarter; waste processing plants, mechanized plants for the processing of garbage, waste incineration plants, utilization plants, drain stations, basic warehouses of secondary raw materials - 1 time per month.

Routine sanitary supervision of waste disposal and disposal facilities includes:

1) checking the correctness of the device and the operation of the equipment;

2) sampling of the neutralized waste and monitoring the effectiveness of their neutralization (compost can be allowed for use with a coli titer of 1, and the absence of viable helminth eggs);

3) study of the impact of waste disposal and disposal facilities on the environment;

4) monitoring of working conditions and the state of health of staff.

Improved landfills should provide for storage of waste on a specially prepared waterproof base with a thickness of at least 0.5 m from materials with a filtration coefficient of 10 "5 cm / s. Clay, loam, sandstone or rock without cracks meet these requirements. permeable to an improved landfill, they are permeable to create an artificial base from the imported material with its subsequent compaction. The waste is unloaded onto the prepared base, leveled with a bulldozer, so that a layer with a thickness of 0.2-0.3 m is formed and compacted. The next layer is unloaded onto the compacted waste layer. The total height of the working layer of waste should not exceed 2 m. The working layer of waste is covered with an intermediate insulating layer of soil with a height of at least 0.25 m .

As a material for the insulating layer, it is advisable to use well compacted loamy and sandy loam soils with a moisture content of 30-50%. Construction debris and slag can also be used. The next working waste layer of 2 m thick is stored on the intermediate insulating soil layer. The total number of waste layers depends on the designed capacity of the landfill. An intermediate insulating layer of soil is poured no later than a day after the start of filling the working layer of waste, and in the cold season - after 3 days.

The duration of the neutralization and mineralization of waste in the upper layers of the landfill is 15-20 years after its closure. The approximate dimensions of the land plot of the improved landfill are 0.02-0.05 ha per 1000 tons of waste per year. SPZ should be at least 500 m.

At the current sanitary supervision of composting fields, the hygienist must control the presence of fencing of the territory with drainage channels to protect against storm and melt water, the presence and size of the sanitary protection zone, and the method for eliminating the unused portion of the waste.

Stacks of solid waste are placed in parallel rows at a distance of 3 m from one another. The entrances to them should be 6 m wide and have a hard surface. Moisture-consuming materials are placed in the base of the stacks of household waste to trap the liquid generated during composting. Waste should be disposed of without compaction.

The approximate size of the composting fields is 1-2 ha per 1000 tons of waste per year (piles occupy 80% of the territory, 15% - driveways and drainage ditches, 5% - economic zone). Более точно площадь полей компостирования можно рассчитать по формулам, приведенным в табл. 55. Созревание компоста в зависимости от климатических условий и времени закладки продолжается от 5 до 12 мес, пока не образуется рыхлая, темно-коричневая масса, лишенная запаха и не привлекающая мух. Созревшую компостную массу после контроля на содержание тяжелых металлов и других загрязнителей техногенного происхождения можно использовать в качестве органического удобрения.

При обследовании биотермических камер для обезвреживания твердых бытовых отходов обращают внимание на количество секций в них, наличие аэраторов, пристенных козырьков, решеток и вентиляционных башен. Полы камеры должны быть водонепроницаемыми с уклоном 0,01% в сторону пристройки для отведения жидкости, образующейся в процессе компостирования (10—15% от массы отходов). Для обеспечения нормального течения биотермического процесса продолжительность загрузки камеры должна составлять не более 4 дней. Непрерывность процесса загрузки отходов и получения компоста обеспечивается устройством нескольких камер.

Территория участка, на котором размещают биотермическую камеру, должна составлять 0,05—0,1 га на 1000 м3 отходов, перерабатываемых в год. На участке располагают склады для хранения утиля и компоста, площадку для отделения от компоста крупных балластных фракций (металл, стекло и т. п.) Продолжительность компостирования в биотермических камерах составляет 40 сут летом и 60 сут зимой. СЗЗ должна быть не менее 300 м.

Оценку санитарного состояния почвы врач-гигиенист проводит на основании данных санитарного обследования и результатов лабораторного анализа проб почвы. Критерием эффективности работы сооружений по обезвреживанию твердых бытовых отходов является эпидемическая безопасность продуктов переработки отходов.

Эксплуатация объектов по обезвреживанию отходов не должна оказывать неблагоприятного влияния на здоровье и санитарные условия проживания населения. При проведении текущего санитарного надзора тщательному контролю подлежат условия труда персонала, обслуживающего установки, организация медицинской помощи и диспансерного наблюдения за здоровьем персонала. Раз в год весь персонал должен проходить медицинский осмотр и обследование на носительство возбудителей кишечных инфекций и яиц гельминтов. При обнаружении глистных инвазий обязательно проводят дегельминтизацию и делают отметку в личной медицинской книжке работника о дате ее проведения и эффективности.
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Государственный санитарный надзор в области санитарной охраны почвы и очистки населенных мест

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  2. State sanitary supervision of the planning, development and improvement of populated areas
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  11. The history of the development of sanitary protection of the soil. Indicators characterizing the basic properties of the soil, their hygienic value
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