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State sanitary supervision and laboratory control in the field of water supply in populated areas

In accordance with the current legislation, the state executive authorities, local and regional self-government bodies are required to provide residents of populated areas with high-quality drinking water in sufficient quantities (Law of Ukraine "On Ensuring the Sanitary and Epidemic Welfare of the Population", Article 18). To solve the problem of rational water supply in populated areas, properly organized and systematic sanitary supervision is important. State sanitary supervision of drinking water supply is carried out by institutions of the state sanitary and epidemiological service, primarily SES. In rural areas, the staff of medical stations and feldsher-midwife stations are involved in the control of local water supply.

State sanitary and epidemiological surveillance provides for monitoring compliance by legal (departments, agencies, enterprises, etc.) and individuals (citizens) with sanitary legislation in the field of water supply to populated areas and the application of legal measures to violators. The state sanitary and epidemiological control over the drinking water supply is carried out in two forms: preventive and current sanitary supervision. During it, the hygienist is guided by the following legislative and official documents: the Constitution of Ukraine, the Fundamentals of legislation on health protection, the laws "On ensuring sanitary and epidemic well-being of the population", "On protecting the environment", "On drinking water and drinking water supply" , Water Code, SanPiN "Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply", GOST 2874-82 "Drinking water.

Hygienic requirements and quality control ", GOST 2761-84" Sources of centralized drinking water supply. Hygienic, technical requirements and selection rules ", The Sanitary Rules for the Design and Maintenance of Wells and Captures of Springs Used for Decentralized Drinking Water Supply No. 1226-75, ДР-97" Permissible Levels of 137Cs and 90Sr Radionuclides in Food and Drinking Water " , SNiP 2.04.02-84 "Water supply. External networks and structures ", SNiP 2.04.02-85" Internal water supply and sewerage of buildings "," Regulation on the design and operation of sanitary protection zones of water supply sources and water supply systems for drinking and drinking purposes ", Resolution" Legal regime of sanitary protection zones of water bodies " , as well as other state standards, sanitary rules and norms for individual facilities and technologies, instructive documents approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

Preventive health surveillance. The main role in ensuring rational drinking water supply belongs to preventive sanitary supervision.

Preventive sanitary supervision in the process of organizing a centralized drinking water supply provides for:

1) the participation of the hygienist in choosing the source of water supply, the location of the water intake and the main structures of the water supply, as well as in establishing the boundaries of the WSS;

2) consideration of projects for the expansion and reconstruction of existing and construction of new water pipelines, including projects of the WSS;

3) sanitary supervision during the construction of water pipelines;

4) participation in the commissioning of water supply systems and individual waterworks.

Preventive sanitary supervision begins at the stage of selecting a source of water supply. In this important work carried out by a commission of specialists (hydrogeologists, hydrobiologists, hydrologists, specialists in the field of construction and water treatment technology, economists), the sanitary doctor is given special powers, according to the "Regulation on State Sanitary Inspection". The final conclusion on the suitability of the source of water supply for domestic and drinking purposes is given by the sanitary-epidemiological service.

At the stage of choosing the source of drinking water supply, the sanitary doctor takes part in collecting retrospective data on the sanitary condition of water bodies and the surrounding area in the area of ​​future water supply construction, determines the places and dates for taking water samples. The right to conduct water analyzes during source selection, in accordance with GOST 2761-84 "Sources of centralized drinking water supply. Hygienic, technical requirements and selection rules," is also assigned to SES laboratories.

In the process of designing a water supply system, the sanitary-epidemiological service should provide the designing organization with information about the sanitary condition of the territory of the future water supply and water supply facilities taking into account the prospects for the development of the national economy, housing construction and improvement. Of great importance is the examination of construction projects for new and reconstruction of existing water supply systems.

Household-drinking water supply systems are constructed according to individual projects using standard solutions of individual structures and units. During the consideration of the drinking water supply project, it is necessary to assess the fundamental issues: is the water supply capacity sufficient for uninterrupted supply of the population with the necessary amount of water, the flow rate of the water supply source meets the requirements, the water treatment scheme has been properly designed based on the water quality of the water supply source, are the boundaries correctly identified ZOZ and whether there are enough planned measures to improve its territory. All these issues should be considered taking into account the prospects for the economic development of the settlement or region in whose territory the water supply system is being designed.

A sanitary doctor can give a correct assessment of a project only on the basis of its own materials about the water resources of a given area, the quality of water, the sanitary-epidemiological condition of the territory of the region, and the existing foci of pollution. This information is collected at the SES in the course of ongoing sanitary surveillance. Comments on the project should be supported by references to the documents of the current sanitary legislation (State Standards, sanitary rules, Construction Norms and Regulations, government regulations).

The work of the hygienist at the stage of examination of the water supply project of a settlement consists of several stages:

1. Familiarization with the passport data of the project, namely, the name of the project, the customer organization, the developer organization, the authors of the project, etc.

2. Checking the completeness of the materials presented, namely the availability of: 1) an explanatory note with the characteristics of the settlement and the prospects for its development, calculations of the total water consumption of the settlement, justification of the need for construction or reconstruction of the water supply system, the choice of the optimal version of the water supply and water treatment scheme, with calculations of treatment facilities , their comprehensive characteristics, characteristics of water pipelines and water supply network; 2) graphic materials (situational plan of the area, the general plan of the settlement, the plan of the site of the main waterworks, the plan and profiles of the water mains and the water supply network); 3) the project of the ZSO with the text part and graphic materials; 4) applications.

3. Acquaintance with official regulatory documents, on the basis of which the project examination will be carried out.

4. Sanitary examination of the materials provided. At this stage, the hygienist checks the calculations of the water consumption of the village, gives a hygienic assessment of the correct choice of the water supply source and the place of water intake, makes a conclusion about the correctness of the choice of the technological scheme of water treatment and the location of the site of the main waterworks, about the calculation and arrangement of the individual waterworks and waterworks network. Gives a hygienic assessment to the ZZO project (the correctness of the justification of the boundaries of individual belts and the adequacy of the measures provided)

5. Preparation of an expert opinion on the possibility and conditions for the implementation of the considered project. This concludes the work of the hygienist on the project. The project may be agreed and not agreed. In case of incorrect (erroneous) solution of fundamental issues in the project, it is rejected and sent for revision, indicating a specific reason.

Sanitary control during the construction of water supply systems. During the construction of the water supply system, they oversee the implementation of design decisions, the integrated construction of treatment facilities and networks, and compliance with the construction deadlines. Representatives of the state sanitary inspection must be present at the time of drawing up the acceptance certificate for covert work. In the future, the hygienist must quarterly conduct a sanitary inspection of the construction of the water supply system and draw up the results with an act.

Participation in the commissioning of water supply systems and individual waterworks. The last stage of preventive sanitary supervision is the participation of the sanitary doctor in the work of the working and state commissions for the acceptance of the water supply system into operation. Facilities must be in operational condition. The working commission checks the conformity of the construction and installation work with the project documentation, gives an opinion on the results of the trial operation of the equipment and hydraulic tests, makes a decision on the possibility of presenting the object for acceptance by the state commission. The State Commission gets acquainted with the approved water supply project, the expert opinion on the SES project, checks the acts of hidden work, the acceptance certificate of the working commission, determines the compliance of the constructed object with the approved project and its readiness for operation.

In addition to the water supply facilities, it is necessary to evaluate the correctness of the measures envisaged by the project for organizing and improving the WSS of the water source. After this, in the absence of comments, they constitute the act of acceptance of the facility into operation. If even minor flaws are revealed, the sanitary doctor does not have the right to sign the state acceptance certificate.

Ongoing sanitary inspection should contribute to the observance of the correct technological regime of water treatment, the timely detection of defects in the operation of treatment facilities and the network and the prevention of the supply of water to the population that does not meet the requirements of the current state standard (SanPiN "Drinking water.
Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply "or GOST 2874-82" Drinking water. Hygienic requirements and quality control "). Its purpose is to monitor the maintenance of the water area, the sanitary condition of the territory of the Wastewater Treatment Plant, all water supply facilities, compliance with the sanitary minimum by the maintenance personnel, and the timeliness of their medical examinations.

According to the law of Ukraine "On ensuring the sanitary and epidemic well-being of the population" (Article 26), water station personnel and persons serving water towers, clean water tanks and columns must undergo preliminary (prior to being hired) and periodic medical examinations. Before starting work, they undergo examination by a therapist and a dermatologist, fluorography, examination for carriage of pathogens of intestinal infections and helminths. In the future, they are examined by a therapist, a dermatologist, they are subjected to fluorography once a year, and screening for bacteriocarrier is carried out according to epidemic indications. The results of the examination are recorded in individual sanitary books, which are stored at the facility. Those who have not undergone a full medical examination at the prescribed time without good reason are not allowed to work, they may be brought to disciplinary action.

Due to the important role of benign drinking water in improving the living conditions of the population, the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological service cannot limit themselves to performing only control functions. They should initiate measures to improve the entire water supply system in populated areas.

The basis of current sanitary supervision is the certification of water supply facilities. A passport is compiled for each water supply facility (waterworks, outdoor water distribution structures, water towers, etc.). Start with a sanitary description containing all the information

necessary for the sanitary characteristics of the facility. In the future, materials are attached to it, reflecting all changes that occur in the condition and maintenance of the facility during its operation, copies of the sanitary inspection certificates, all the sanitary supervision comments made to the water supply administration in order to improve performance, and laboratory test results.

The success of the current sanitary surveillance of drinking water supply is largely determined by the organization of systematic laboratory quality control of water that enters the water supply network and drinking water at the points of tapping. Distinguish between laboratory and production control carried out by the owner of the water supply system, and sanitary and laboratory control, which is an element of current sanitary supervision and is carried out by SES. On large water pipelines with their own analytical laboratories, laboratory and production control of water quality is carried out by these laboratories in accordance with the requirements of the current standard (GOST 2874-82 or SanPiN "Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for the quality of drinking water of centralized drinking water supply").

The water quality of water pipelines that do not have their own laboratories is controlled by mobile auto laboratories subordinate to the regional water supply and sewer facilities, or the laboratory of the local SES under a self-replenished agreement.

Laboratory and production control over water quality is regulated by GOST 2874-82. In accordance with it, during the analysis of drinking water samples in the distribution network, they are limited to determining the total microbial number, coli index and organoleptic properties of water (color, turbidity, smell, taste and taste). Places of sampling from the network (from remote street water taps, dead ends) and the frequency of systematic monitoring by departmental laboratories must be agreed with the SES. The volume of water analyzes from the distribution network depends on the number of people served by the water supply.

At all pipelines in which water is disinfected with chlorine or ozone, their residual amounts are monitored hourly (see p. 177). With this in mind, it is advisable to implement automatic residual chlorine analyzers in all water pipelines where water is chlorinated, regardless of their capacity. This will significantly increase the control function of the indicator.

Sanitary and laboratory control over the water quality of the drinking water supply system is carried out by the laboratory of the territorial SES according to its own plan according to SanPiN "Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for the quality of water in the centralized drinking water supply". In addition, the bodies and institutions of the state sanitary-epidemiological service coordinate all types of work that are carried out or are planned at the head structures of water supply systems and the water supply network and are associated with the repair, reconstruction, and change of the technology for cleaning and disinfecting water. According to epidemiological indications, the territorial SES coordinates the place of administration and doses of disinfectants and other reagents during the water treatment process and a schedule for monitoring the residual amount of these reagents.

She manages the departmental laboratory, coordinates schedules for the frequency of sampling, their total number and content of analyzes of laboratory production monitoring of water quality. The program for conducting laboratory production monitoring of water quality in centralized drinking water supply systems involves sampling at water intake sites, during water treatment in treatment facilities, before entering the external distribution system and in the water supply network. The frequency of water analyzes at these points is determined based on their capacity of the water supply (volume of water supply), and in the water distribution network, taking into account the number of people served.

The laboratories of the territorial bodies of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service carry out control studies of water quality with a frequency that is determined by the type of specific water source, the volume of water supplied to the population, and the location of water sampling points. There are several types of water quality control:

1) a complete analysis or control of all indicators regulated by the current state standard for drinking water. It is mandatory during the commissioning of a new water supply system or after downtime for more than 5 days;

2) сокращенный анализ или контроль по некоторым показателям эпидемической безопасности воды (общее микробное число, индекс бактерий группы кишечной палочки), ее химического состава (pH, нитраты, железо, активный остаточный хлор, содержание тригалометанов), органолептических свойств (запах, вкус и привкус, мутность, цветность). Является обязательным после капитального ремонта, реконструкции и переоборудования водопровода и распределительной сети, при изменении технологии обработки воды;

3) общий физико-химический контроль (определение веществ, характеризующих показатели безвредности химического состава воды);

4) специальный контроль эпидемической безопасности питьевой воды (мутность, общее микробное число, индексы бактерий группы кишечной палочки, фекальные коли-формы и коли-фаги, патогенные микроорганизмы, вирусологические, при эпидситуации — и паразитологические показатели);

5) специальный токсикологический контроль (определение высокотоксичных веществ, при необходимости — биотестирование);

6) специальный контроль радиационной безопасности питьевой воды (определение объемной суммарной активности а- и Я-излучателей и при необходимости — ее радионуклидного состава).

Если качество воды в точке водозабора не отвечает действующему стандарту (ГОСТ 2761-84) по бактериологическим показателям (общее микробное число, индекс бактерий группы кишечной палочки), нужно немедленно повторно взять пробы воды и провести дополнительные исследования на показатели свежего фекального загрязнения (индекс фекальных коли-форм), патогенные микроорганизмы и коли-фаги. При повторном выявлении бактериального загрязнения в 2 последовательно взятых пробах воды организуют усиленный контроль за соблюдением режима в ЗСО и технологией очистки и обеззараживания воды. Проводят специальный контроль эпидемической безопасности питьевой воды перед поступлением в наружную распределительную сеть и в самой водопроводной сети.

Перед поступлением в наружную распределительную сеть любое отклонение качества воды от показателей эпидемической безопасности действующего стандарта (ГОСТ 2874-82) следует рассматривать как последствия неудовлетворительной работы очистных сооружений водопровода. При этом нужно немедленно провести специальный контроль эпидемической безопасности питьевой воды в водопроводной сети, усилить контроль за технологией очистки воды и повысить дозы реагентов для обеззараживания.

В водопроводной сети любое отклонение качества воды от показателей эпидемической безопасности действующего стандарта следует рассматривать как чрезвычайно опасную эпидемическую ситуацию. Необходимо немедленно оповестить население, детские и лечебно-профилактические заведения, предприятия общественного питания и пищевой промышленности. В такой ситуации нужно проводить специальные мероприятия на сооружениях водопровода по выявлению и ликвидации причины неблагоприятной эпидемической ситуации.

Нарушение санитарно-гигиенических и санитарно-противоэпидемических правил и норм, а также невыполнение выданных на их основании предписаний органов государственного санитарно-эпидемического надзора влечет за собой ответственность (дисциплинарную, административную, гражданско-правовую, криминальную) согласно действующему законодательству.
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