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Characterization of certain types of disinfectants
Currently used for disinfection of about 450 disinfectants. Depending on the chemical structure, disinfectants are divided into the following groups: halogen-containing compounds, oxygen-containing compounds, surfactants, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, acids, alkalis and heavy metals.
1. Halide-containing disinfectants - incorporate chlorine, iodine, bromine as the active substance (ADV). They have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity: they are active against spores, mycobacterium tuberculosis, viruses (AIDS, viral hepatitis B, acute respiratory viral infections). Used for disinfection of premises, equipment, implements, dishes, containers, etc.
Chlorine-containing substances. Chlorine and other chloroactive drugs by the mechanism of action are oxidizing agents. This group includes compounds that produce chlorine and oxygen, which ensures their high bactericidal effect. The bactericidal activity of chlorine-containing drugs increases by decreasing the pH of the solutions and increasing the contact time. A decrease in temperature below 10 ° C negatively affects their activity.
With regard to the bactericidal action of chlorine-containing drugs, the theory of the oxidizing effect of oxygen at the time of its release is most justified according to the formula:
С12 + Н2О -> НС1О + НС1
Hypochlorous acid during the reaction further releases oxygen, active at the time of its release, which causes the death of microbes:
HCIO -> HC1 + O
Chlorine is a yellow-green gas with a choking odor that irritates the respiratory tract. It is well dissolved in water at a temperature from 0 to 15 ° C. Chlorine gas is stored in metal containers in a liquefied state under pressure. Used for disinfection of drinking water at a dose of 1-5 mg per 1 liter and wastewater - 5-100 mg per 1 liter.
Chloric lime is a white, dry powder with a yellowish tint and a pungent smell of chlorine. Dry bleach consists of a mixture of calcium salts of hypochlorous acid mixed with hydrated lime and calcium hypochlorite, which is the main component of the drug. Chlorine lime is only partially soluble in water, but forms suspensions or suspensions in it. Calcium hypochlorite passes from the solution, from which active chlorine is released.
It is produced in the factory by passing gaseous chlorine through slaked lime. Three grades are produced, containing 28%, 32% and 35% of active chlorine. Suitable for disinfection is bleach with an active chlorine content of at least 25%.
Active chlorine - the amount of chlorine that can be displaced by exposure to bleach diluted with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid (%).
Chloric lime is an unstable hygroscopic compound. If stored incorrectly, it quickly decomposes with the formation of lumps and the loss of active chlorine. The decomposition of the drug contribute to sunlight, heat, moisture. Therefore, bleach should be stored in a dark, dry and cool place, in a tightly closed container. However, with proper storage in bleach, the loss of active chlorine is 1-3% per month, so its content is determined at least once every 3 months. Chlorine lime corrodes metals, discolors paints, and destroys cotton fabrics. During prolonged storage, bleach can ignite spontaneously.
Chlorine lime has pronounced bactericidal and sporocidal properties, which are determined by the presence in the aqueous solution of hypochlorous acid and oxygen. Subsequently, oxygen and active chlorine are released.
In disinfection practice, bleach is used in the form of concentrated 10-20% solutions - for rough disinfection and working solutions in concentrations of 0.2-2% for disinfection of rooms, equipment, utensils, implements, etc.
To obtain a working solution of bleach, a 10% stock solution (from 1 kg of dry bleach with 25% activity) is preliminarily prepared in an enameled, plastic bowl or glass bottle made of dark glass with a ground stopper. Leave for 24 hours in a cool dark place, stirring three times in the first 4 hours, so that the active chlorine completely passes into the solution. After a day, the clarified solution is poured into another container. This concentrated solution is used to prepare working solutions and is stored for no more than 5 days.
With a lower or higher content of active chlorine in bleach, it is necessary to respectively increase or decrease the amount of dry preparation (table. 10), using the formula:
where C is the concentration of active chlorine in dry bleach.
The amount of dry bleach,
necessary for the preparation of 10 l of 10% solution
Calcium hypochlorite, Ca (OS1) 2 - a white powder with the smell of chlorine, is highly soluble in water, has high bactericidal, sporocidal and virucidal properties. Available in two varieties: with an active chlorine content of 55% and 50%. The drug is more resistant than bleach, can last up to 5 years, while only about 8% of active chlorine is lost. Widely used for disinfection in the food industry. In catering, 0.1% calcium hypochlorite is used to disinfect tableware.
Sodium hypochlorite - is a salt of hypochlorous acid, has a bactericidal and sporocidal effect.
Of the imported preparations containing sodium hypochlorite, the Javelin product (France), produced in the form of tablets containing 58% active chlorine, should be noted. It has bactericidal and virucidal properties. Shelf life is 12 months.
Chloramine B is a crystalline powder of white color, sometimes with a yellowish tint, with a faint smell of chlorine. Contains 26% active chlorine. Chlorine in chloramine is firmly bound to an organic base, so if stored properly, chloramine may not lose active chlorine for several years. Chloramine has bactericidal, virucidal and sporocidal properties, especially in acidic and neutral environments; in an alkaline environment it is somewhat weaker. Warm solutions of chloramine (40-50 ° C) are very active, with no loss of active chlorine. Working solutions of chloramine B retain active chlorine for 15 days.
Dichloroisocyanuric acid (DHCC) - is used in the form of potassium and sodium salts. These are white crystalline powders with the smell of chlorine. The content of active chlorine is 56-60%. For disinfection, working solutions of 0.1-0.3% concentration are used, which remain active for 3 days. They do not cause metal corrosion, color changes, etc. They are used for disinfection on food objects. They are also used to prepare detergent-disinfectant solutions.
Clorsept - is produced in the USA in tablet form. One tablet, weighing 3.4 g, contains 1670 mg of DHCC sodium salt (1000 mg of active chlorine). Range of action: bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores. Widely used in medicine and sanitary surveillance.
Prescription - is made in the USA in the form of white tablets with the smell of chlorine. Belongs to the DHCC group. The content of active chlorine in a tablet weighing 1 g - 0.28 g, 5.0 g - 1.4 g, 10 g - 2.8 g. Recommended for disinfection on food objects.
Trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCC) is a white granular powder containing 90% active chlorine. Aqueous solutions are colorless, transparent, have high antimicrobial activity. The effectiveness of the drug is 10 times higher than bleach. Shelf life of 2-3 years. It is used for disinfection in the dairy industry, etc. It can be added to detergents to give them disinfecting properties.
D-2 - refers to the group of THCC, is a powder containing 35-40% of active chlorine. It is used for disinfection of technological equipment, pipelines at the enterprises of the brewing, non-alcoholic, wine-making industries.
Iodine - blackish crystals, soluble in alcohol and in a solution of potassium iodide. Iodine solutions have high bactericidal, fungicidal and sporocidal properties. The bactericidal effect is due to halogenation, not oxidation. Iodine is used in the form of a 5-10% alcohol solution and an aqueous 5% iodine solution containing 10% potassium iodide (Lugol's solution).
2. Oxygen-containing compounds. This is a group of drugs whose active ingredient is oxygen.
Hydrogen peroxide - 3% aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide have bactericidal and virucidal properties, 6% solutions have sporicidal properties. These solutions are prepared from perhydrol - 30% hydrogen peroxide. Solutions of hydrogen peroxide in 3-6% concentration can cause damage to paints, varnishes, enamel. Hydrogen peroxide is often used in a mixture with detergents (sulfanol, Progress, Lotus, Astra, Aina, etc.). At present, 6% hydrogen peroxide solutions are used to disinfect products made of polymer materials, including food containers, packaging, etc.
Hydropyrite is a complex compound of hydrogen peroxide with urea, containing about 35% hydrogen peroxide.
It is used as an antiseptic. Available in tablets of 1.5 g. Shelf life 1 year.
Peracetic acid is a liquid that mixes easily with water and alcohol. It is a strong oxidizing agent, but is unstable. The antimicrobial effect of peracetic acid is manifested in a concentration of 0.01%, higher concentrations have a sporocidal effect.
Deoxon-4 is a colorless liquid with a specific smell of vinegar. Contains 6-9% peracetic acid, 12-22% hydrogen peroxide. It has bactericidal, virucidal and sporicidal activity that lasts for 6 months. Recommended for the disinfection of technological equipment and pipelines in the beverage industry.
Potassium permanganate - has pronounced bactericidal properties, but little is used in disinfection practice, as it spoils and stains objects. Weak solutions (0.0001; 0.005; 0.002%) are used for sanitation (rinsing the mouth and other procedures).
3. Surfactants. Disinfectants include cationic surfactants based on quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) and amphoteric surfactants. With a combination of surfactants with aldehydes and alcohols, the disinfecting properties of drugs of this group are enhanced. These compounds are easily adsorbed by surfaces, so processed objects can retain a residual antimicrobial effect for some time. Adverse properties of surfactants are low activity against resistant species and forms of microorganisms (mycobacterium tuberculosis, spores, bacilli, fungi), as well as the frequent formation of resistance of microbes to them. This group of compounds includes a number of disinfectants recommended for use in the food industry.
Catapine - contains 78-92% of the active substance. Suppresses extraneous microflora of yeast production at a concentration of 0.01%. Activity increases with increasing temperature.
Cationate-10 - contains 70% of the active substance, poorly soluble in water. Suppresses bacteria at a concentration of 0.01-0.005%, yeast at a concentration of 0.1%.
Catamine AB is a clear, viscous liquid. It is used for disinfection of equipment and pipelines of fermentation, camp, blending and bottling workshops at the enterprises of the beer and soft drinks industry.
Alaminol - contains catamine AB and glycol. It is a transparent concentrate of blue color. Shelf life 1 year. It has detergent properties. Approved for use in public catering.
Septodor - made in Israel. It is a clear concentrate with a slight specific smell, mixes well with water, contains 50% HOUR. Recommended for use in the dairy industry for the disinfection of equipment and containers; in the baking and confectionery industry for disinfection of equipment, domestic and industrial premises.
Veltaleks - contains HOUR and ethyl alcohol. It has antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal effects. Available in the form of disinfecting wipes 175x140 mm in size, packed in sealed bags, designed for hygienic processing of hands, including catering workers.
Veltosept-S - disposable napkins made of white tissue paper. They are used for disinfection of small surfaces in catering, trade and household.
Veltonen is a transparent, light yellow color, a liquid hydroalcoholic concentrate with a citrus smell. Designed for hygienic processing of hands in public catering, etc.
4. Aldehyde-containing products - a group of drugs whose active principle is glutaral or succinic aldehyde.
Formaldehyde is an aldehyde of formic acid, obtained from methyl alcohol by oxidation. It is a colorless gas with a pungent odor irritating the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract. It is soluble in water.
Formalin - 40% aqueous formaldehyde solution. It has a bactericidal, sporocidal and fungicidal effect. With increasing temperature, the effect of disinfection increases. (30-60 ° C). It is used for disinfection in brewing, non-alcoholic and yeast industries in a concentration of 1.5-5%.
5. Alcohols - a group of drugs based on ethanol, propanol.
Ethyl alcohol - has the highest bactericidal and virucidal properties of all alcohols. 50% alcohol has a bactericidal effect, but it is maximally expressed in 70% alcohol (it does not have a sporocidal effect). A higher concentration of alcohol rapidly coagulates the microbial protein, thereby reducing the permeability of alcohol deep into the microbial cell. Diluted alcohol coagulates proteins more slowly and therefore better penetrates deep into the cells.
6. Phenols and their derivatives
Phenol is a crystalline carbolic acid, volatile, with a persistent odor irritating the upper respiratory tract. Phenol is poorly soluble in water. The bactericidal properties of phenol solutions increase with increasing temperature and adding 2% soap. In the practice of disinfection, 2-5% aqueous and soap-phenolic solutions are used.
Lysol is a solution of cresols in potash (green) soap. Brown cherry liquid. Applied for hard disinfection of rooms, objects, etc.
Chlorbetanaphthol - is produced by the industry in the form of a 33% concentrate - dark colored paste. When diluting the paste, stable emulsions are obtained, which are used in preventive disinfection for the treatment of various surfaces and objects. 5-10 times more active than bleach and chloramine, does not have a pungent odor, does not spoil or discolor objects. Does not cause metal corrosion.
Hexachlorophen - powder or small needle crystals of cream color. Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents. The drug is bactericidal. It was used to disinfect skin in the form of soap containing 2-5% hexachlorophene.
7. Acids - have pronounced bactericidal properties in relation to the vegetative forms of microorganisms, and spore forms also die under the influence of some acids. The bactericidal effect of acids on a microbial cell is based on protoplasm dehydration, dissolution and breakdown of proteins, and also depends on the degree of acid dissociation into ions. An increase in temperature by 10 ° C increases the bactericidal activity of acids by 2-3 times.
Acids are used in a mixture with other disinfectants and to improve the solubility of water-insoluble substances. The use of inorganic (hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, etc.), as well as organic (acetic, lactic, glycolic) acids in disinfection practice is significantly narrowed due to their damage to fabrics, wood, paints, metals, etc.
Hydrochloric acid - has a bactericidal and sporocidal effect. A dilution of 1:10 is recommended for acidification of the environment during wastewater disinfection. It is applied at some enterprises of the food industry.
Sulfuric acid - is mainly used in the form of a 5% solution in veterinary practice for disinfecting livestock buildings and a 10% solution for disinfecting wastewater.
Acetic acid has a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect. For example, in its 3% solution, the causative agent of typhoid fever dies, in 4% solution - Escherichia coli, and in 9% - Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus. In public catering, 1% solutions of acetic acid are used to wipe racks and cabinets for bread (at least once a week).
Lactic acid has bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties against bacteria of typhoid fever, E. coli, staphylococcus, streptococcus. The bactericidal and virucidal properties of vapors and atomized solutions of lactic acid are especially pronounced. It is recommended for disinfection of indoor air: 10 mg per 1 m3 of air causes death of staphylococcus and influenza virus in 10 minutes.
8. Alkalis have bactericidal, virucidal and sporocidal properties. They destroy the microbial cell, cause hydrolysis of proteins, saponify fats, break down carbohydrates, cause swelling and osmosis of microbial cells. Alkalis can damage the skin, irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes, cause damage to some objects.
Slaked lime - is used in the form of a lime suspension of 10 or 20% concentration for disinfection of garbage pits, garbage containers, whitewashing the walls of vegetable stores, etc. Whitewashing is performed three times. Lime consumption of 1 liter per 1 m2. Lime slurry must be prepared immediately before use.
9. Heavy metals. Антимикробное действие их связано с выделением в жидкость ионов, вызывающих денатурацию белков и гибель микроорганизмов. Такое действие называется олигодинамическим. В дезинфекционной практике наибольший интерес из этой группы представляет серебро.
Серебро - ионы серебра обладают выраженным антимикробным действием. Существуют специальные установки и приборы для обеззараживания питьевой воды.
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