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Monitoring compliance with general sanitary requirements for food facilities
General principles for the placement and improvement of a food object. The land plot, sanitary improvement of production facilities, equipment and the manufacturing process of a food enterprise must comply with hygienic requirements and standards: “Planning, development of cities, towns and rural settlements” (SNiP P-60-75), “Norms and technical conditions for designing enterprises public catering ”(SN-60-87),“ Auxiliary buildings and premises of industrial enterprises ”(SNiP. II-92-76),“ Administrative and domestic buildings ”(SNiP. II. 09. 04. 87); see also “Instructions on the activities of bodies and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service in the implementation of sanitary supervision of the planning and development of populated areas” (No. 3230-85), “Methodological guidelines for the implementation of state supervision of the planning and development of populated areas” (No. 2943- 83).
When choosing a land plot, its proper placement must be ensured with coordination of transport and energy, utilities and other communications, the possibility of contamination of the food object with waste and emissions of other objects should be excluded, favorable lighting, insolation and ventilation conditions should be created.
The territory free from buildings, walkways, driveways should be landscaped, and the territory of the food facility should be zoned, which allows you to organize and maintain the most favorable sanitary regime. The site of the food object should be delimited into two zones - production and economic.
The size of the land area of the food object is not standardized, however, the following standardized values are observed on the site: sanitary protection zone around the artillery well, between production and economic zones, percentage of landscaping, distance to fuel, garbage, waste storage facilities, etc.
Courtyard latrines, cesspools, waste bins are disposed taking into account the wind rose and at a distance of at least 25 m from the windows and doors of production buildings.
Sanitary improvement of industrial premises. The composition of the premises of a food facility depends on its production profile, production technology and capacity. In all cases, the basic principles must be observed: production flow, excluding the meeting of raw materials with finished products, clean and dirty containers, dirty dishes - from clean, containers, fuels, etc. - with finished products, as well as ensuring the production movement of staff and workers separate from visitor traffic. Premises should be grouped according to their functional purpose. For example, premises for the acceptance of raw materials (loading, acceptance) should be located near the warehouse. Cooled chambers are combined in one block with a separate vestibule.
At food facilities, special attention is paid to the interior decoration of the premises. They should be bright and accessible for cleaning. The floors in wet rooms are made from a waterproof, durable material with a surface that is convenient for cleaning and washing. In the workshops for processing products, floors are made of acid-resistant materials. Special mechanical strength of the floor is required in warehouses where intra-workshop transport is carried out.
Wall panels in industrial premises to a height of 1.8–2 m are painted with oil paints or tiled. Decoration of rooms with plastic polymer materials permitted by the USSR Ministry of Health is also allowed.
The technological equipment and equipment of the food enterprise should be easily disassembled by design, accessible for regular cleaning, washing and disinfection; the arrangement should exclude the meeting of dirty and clean streams, finished products and raw materials.
Cold and hot water supply and sewerage are provided in the workshops of the food facility: a) connection to the existing city (village, etc.) water supply system; b) the use of a local water source with water that meets the requirements of the current GOST for drinking water; c) it is allowed to use non-potable water for technical purposes (refrigeration unit, heating system, flushing cisterns in toilets, watering the territory, etc.) through a separate technical water supply network (the distribution network is painted in a distinctive color).
The use of water from industrial water supply for technological purposes, washing equipment and containers, as well as for showers, mopping, etc. is prohibited.
Hot water from the boilers is supplied through an independent network to the corresponding points of the drawdown. When the internal sewage system is installed on food facilities, it is not allowed to construct the sewer of risers and suspended sewer pipelines through the premises for storing and processing food and cooking. Washbasins, sinks, bathtubs for washing food products are connected to the general sewage system through air gaps with a width of at least 10 mm. Wastewater should include mechanical cleaning and grease collection.
Lighting, heating, ventilation at food facilities are regulated by the relevant building codes and sanitary rules (see the section on catering, trade, etc.).
The rules of personal hygiene. The observance of personal hygiene rules for workers in the food industry, catering and trade is of fundamental, paramount importance. The rules include: a) keeping the skin of the body and hands clean; b) the cleanliness of sanitary and personal clothing; c) the hygienic content of the oral cavity; d) compliance with the sanitary-hygienic regime during operation.
Workers directly involved in the manufacture and dispensing of food products and prepared foods at food facilities where there are showers must take a shower every day before and after work. During the sanitary inspection of a food object, cold and pastry shops of catering establishments, production shops of dairy enterprises, and confectionery factories, special attention should be paid to the condition and cleanliness of the hands of workers. Nails should be cut short; the ins and outs are thoroughly cleaned. After each exit from the workshop, visiting the restroom, and upon returning to the workplace, workers must wash their hands with soap and disinfect them with chlorine water (100-150 mg of active chlorine per 1 liter of water or a 0.5% solution of chloramine). They pay attention to the presence in the production facilities of a sufficient number of washbasins with hot and cold water, brushes for washing hands, disinfectant solutions, and sanitary maintenance of toilets. It is necessary to ensure that there are no scratches, cuts, suppurations, or burns on the skin of the hands of workers. In order to avoid contamination of food products, workers in food production who are in direct contact with food, when they detect damage to their skin, are removed from work and sent for treatment.
To protect food products and culinary products from contamination by microorganisms that may be in personal clothing, employees of food enterprises (catering, trade) are given sanitary clothing: bathrobe, jacket, apron, scarf, arm ruffles; at industrial food enterprises, in addition, special shoes, trousers and overalls are given out (from white soft cotton fabric that is easy to wash; clothes of auxiliary workers and cleaners are allowed from dark fabric). Shoes should be durable, light and comfortable, sanitary clothing should be clean. It should be worn in such a way that it completely covers home clothes and hair, fastens well. Sanitary clothing should not be fastened with pins, hairpins, as they can get into the food. At dairy, margarine, brewing, yeast, and bakery enterprises, workers should take a shower and wear a complete set of sanitary clothing.
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Monitoring compliance with general sanitary requirements for food facilities
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for water supply of food facilities
Water supply of food facilities can be carried out by various systems. The local water supply system is the construction of mine and tubular wells, mainly in rural areas. The sources of water for this system are groundwater, which is used without prior treatment. The hygienic characteristics of the wells depend on the depth of the aquifer and protection measures
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the improvement of food facilities
Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for food improvement
- Sanitary control over the production and use of materials intended for contact with food
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- Sanitary regime of food objects
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- Sanitary requirements for food manufacturing enterprises
Food production enterprises include meat, dairy, bakery, and confectionery industries, as well as food and taste production (tea factories, etc.), livestock complexes, dairy farms, and poultry farms. When conducting ongoing sanitary inspection, it is recommended to inspect the enterprise along the process (specific,
- Sanitary control of the use of food additives
Food additives (preservatives, dyes, aromatizing and flavoring substances, antioxidants, stabilizers, enzyme preparations, salt and sugar substitutes, etc.) are introduced into food products at various stages of production, storage and transportation to give them certain (necessary from a technological point of view) properties : preservation of natural qualities, nutritional properties and
- GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY-HYGIENIC CONTROL IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY
The task of microbiological control is the possible rapid detection and identification of the paths of penetration of pest microorganisms into production, foci and their degree of reproduction at certain stages of the technological process; preventing the development of extraneous microflora through the use of various preventive measures; active destruction by disinfection in order to obtain
- SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF FOOD
Compliance with sanitary requirements during transportation, reception, storage, mechanical culinary and heat treatment of food products, as well as at the stage of storage and sale of finished food contributes to the preservation of the nutritional value of products, prevention of contamination of food products and prepared food with bacteria (including pathogenic ones), prevention food poisoning and intestinal infections.
- Sanitary requirements for food transportation
For transportation of food special transport is used. Sanitary control over the transportation of food products is carried out periodically at transport bases, as well as during the delivery of products to their destination, when they are unloaded at catering establishments and other facilities. Vehicles must be specialized for the transport of a particular type of food
- SANITARY CONTROL OF VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS
SANITARY CONTROL OF VEGETABLE FOOD
- SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCEPTANCE AND STORAGE OF FOOD
The products arriving at catering establishments must comply with the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation (GOST, OST, TU, etc.). Acceptance of products is carried out by the storekeeper, production manager, departmental sanitary worker. When accepting products, special attention is paid to the terms of sale of perishable products. For each batch of perishable products
- Violation of sanitary requirements for food supplies by the example of a rural store
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- SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR MECHANICAL CULINARY PROCESSING OF FOOD
The culinary processing of products at public catering facilities has an important physiological, sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological significance. The main requirement for the culinary processing of products is the maximum preservation of their nutritional and biological value, the least pollution and complete neutralization. When preparing dishes, culinary and confectionery on
- SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT PROCESSING OF FOOD
The main purpose of the heat treatment of products is to give food certain organoleptic properties, while preserving its biological value, and also destroying microflora. With proper heat treatment, vegetative and partially spore microflora die. The following main methods of heat treatment are distinguished: cooking, frying, stewing, baking, steaming. With hygienic