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Medical examinations and staff hygiene

The main purpose of a medical examination of employees of food enterprises and organizations is to protect their health and prevent the admission of sick people or carriers of bacteria, which can be a source of infectious diseases and food poisoning. The obligation to conduct medical examinations is indicated by Art. 34 of the Law of the Russian Federation “On the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population” of 03.30.99. Employees of food enterprises and organizations undergo mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations.

Preliminary medical examinations allow you to identify and prevent the work of patients with infectious, pustular and helminthic diseases, which can be a source of infection of consumers and contamination of food products, equipment, inventory, etc. Mandatory preliminary medical examinations on admission to work are carried out in medical institutions the place of residence of the subjects. When undergoing a preliminary examination, the administration of the enterprise sent to a medical institution must fully indicate the last name, first name, middle name, year of birth, profession of the subject, harmful factors and adverse working conditions. When viewed, as a rule, workers are checked for the carriage of pathogens of infectious diseases, intestinal infections, helminthiases, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted and infectious skin diseases. In addition to being examined by a therapist, certain categories of catering workers (waiters, cooks, directors, barmaid) are required to be examined by a dermatovenerologist when they are hired, with laboratory tests for gonorrhea and syphilis. All workers undergo chest x-ray. Persons entering work are screened for helminthiases, cysts, protozoa, and bacteriocarriers (typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, and salmonellosis).

Persons with diseases and bacteriocarriers are not allowed to work at enterprises or are temporarily suspended from work: typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, salmonellosis, dysentery; hymenolepidosis and enteriobiosis; syphilis in the infectious period; leprosy (leprosy); contagious skin diseases (scabies, trichophytosis, microsporia, actinomycosis with ulcerations or fistulas in the open parts of the body); contagious and destructive forms of pulmonary tuberculosis; extrapulmonary tuberculosis with the presence of fistulas, bacteriuria, lupus erythematosus of the face and hands; pustular diseases.

Persons working in food enterprises undergo periodic medical examinations: a quarterly medical examination, once a year they do fluorography. Tests for anthelmintic and bacteriocarrier delivery are delivered within the deadlines established by the institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service. Examination for bacterial and salmonella carriage is carried out not only upon admission to work, but also in the future, with an unsatisfactory sanitary condition of the enterprise and detection of Escherichia coli bacteria in handwashes, equipment, and inventory.

Identified bacteria carriers of intestinal infections are suspended from work and treated. Without the permission of representatives of sanitary inspection bodies, they cannot be allowed to work again. When communicating with infectious patients at the place of residence or work, food facility workers undergo medical supervision and examination.

If helminth infestation is detected, mandatory treatment is carried out in medical institutions. Persons subjected to deworming, in addition to heminolepidosis and enterobiosis, are not exempt from work.

Preventive vaccinations are mandatory for all employees of enterprises in order to prevent infectious and intestinal diseases. The list of preventive vaccinations, the procedure and timing of their implementation are determined by the health authorities.

Persons suffering from tonsillitis and catarrhal phenomena of the upper respiratory tract, having pustular skin diseases, suppurating burns or cuts are temporarily suspended from working with finished products. To identify such persons, it is necessary to conduct a daily check of the hands of personnel for the absence of pustular diseases every day before starting work, recording the results of the check and the measures taken in a special journal for examining pustular diseases.
In the absence of a health worker, such an inspection should be carried out by the sanitary post of the enterprise or the production manager. Workers with pustular diseases are suspended for the duration of treatment from work related to contact with food, utensils, manufacturing equipment and tools for the prevention of staphylococcal intoxication.

Workers who come into direct contact with food, utensils, industrial implements and equipment must undergo hygienic training, take the test once every two years according to the established program. The sanitary minimum program includes information on infectious diseases and food poisoning, their prevention, the sanitary regime of the enterprise, personal hygiene, etc. A sanitary doctor has the right to remove from work persons who do not know and do not comply with sanitary rules at work, before passing the test according to the established program.

Engineering and technical personnel and company executives undergo certification once every two years on sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-anti-epidemic issues.

Each employee of the enterprise must have a personal medical booklet, which reflects the results of all medical examinations and examinations, information about the transmitted infectious diseases, about the passage of hygienic training and certification. Personal medical records of personnel are kept by the administration of the enterprise. The administration of the enterprise is responsible for the admission to work of persons who have not undergone a preliminary or periodic medical examination, as well as those who are not admitted to work for medical reasons, for the timely and organized attendance of workers for these examinations, monitors compliance with the terms of medical examinations.

Every food company employee must know the sanitary rules and observe personal hygiene.

Food enterprises should take measures to protect the health of personnel, aimed at ensuring normal working conditions - lighting, heating, ventilation, and the prevention of occupational injuries. In addition to protecting the health of plant personnel, injury prevention is of great importance in preventing the contamination of food products by certain pathogens. For example, cuts and burns of the hands lead to inflammatory processes and pustular skin diseases, which represents a potential risk of contamination of products with toxigenic staphylococci, which cause foodborne toxicosis.

The administration of the enterprise is obliged:

• ensure the timely passage of mandatory periodic medical examinations by employees in accordance with the approved schedule;

• provide each employee subject to a medical examination with a personal medical record book of the established form;

• organize classes on hygienic training for employees of enterprises, passing tests on admission to work, and then once every two years;

• preliminarily submit to clinics and other medical institutions where medical examinations are conducted, lists of employees of enterprises;

• create working conditions for personnel that comply with sanitary and hygienic standards.

In all organizations, regardless of ownership, production control is carried out in accordance with the sanitary rules of SP 1.1.1058-01 “General issues. Organization and conduct of production control over compliance with sanitary rules and the implementation of sanitary and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures. ” The procedure and frequency of production control, including laboratory tests on the quality and safety of food, working conditions and personal hygiene, is established by the enterprise in agreement with the sanitary inspection authorities.
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Medical examinations and staff hygiene

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