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Sanitary protection of the territory from the importation and spread of quarantine infections (quarantine diseases include: cholera, smallpox, plague, yellow fever) is one of the urgent tasks of Soviet health care due to the fact that the situation in the world over quarantine infections remains tense, and the Soviet Union constantly expanding economic, cultural and tourist relations with many countries of the world, including countries of Asia, Africa, America that are unsuccessful in quarantine infections.

On August 23, 1931, the CEC and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution “On the Sanitary Protection of the Borders of the USSR”. The main objective of the sanitary protection of borders in accordance with the aforementioned resolution is to prevent the importation of quarantine diseases into the USSR from abroad and from the USSR. It emphasizes that all enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and individuals are required to accurately comply with the requirements of the rules on sanitary border protection.

The principle of sanitary protection of the entire territory of our country was first enshrined in the Law "On the Approval of the Fundamentals of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Health Care" adopted on December 19, 1969 by the Supreme Council of the USSR. This document determines that the implementation of measures for the sanitary protection of the territory from the importation of quarantine diseases is subject to the responsibility of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the person of its highest bodies of state power and bodies of state administration in the field of health.

The intensive growth of relations between the USSR and foreign countries, the development of high-speed vehicles significantly increased the risk of introducing quarantine diseases into our country. Therefore, sanitary-quarantine measures are constantly carried out throughout the USSR and primarily in international sea, river ports, airports, border railway stations and highways open for movement across the border.

To carry out these measures at the USSR state border crossing points, the Ministry of Health of the USSR organizes sanitary-quarantine departments (SQS) at international sea and river ports, and sanitary-quarantine points at international airports and highways ( UPC), at border railway stations - sanitary control points (UPC).

For sanitary protection of the borders of the USSR, medical and administrative measures are applied.

Health measures include: medical examination, isolation and isolation of patients and suspicious for health reasons, bacteriological studies, medical observation, observation, sanitary examination of goods, luggage and vehicles, disinfection, disinsection and deratization, etc.

Administrative and sanitary measures include: prohibiting individuals from entering and leaving, prohibiting the import and export of goods and baggage, closing certain areas for entry and exit, closing borders, etc. At border crossing points, sanitary-quarantine departments, sanitary-quarantine and sanitary control points carry out: a medical examination of arriving and departing (Soviet) passengers, crews, cargo, vehicles, including an oral questioning, and, if necessary, their physical examination and passport verification in order to identify laziness of the route before arriving in the USSR; checking the availability and correctness of filling in the established sanitary documents; identification of patients with quarantine diseases, as well as persons subject to isolation or medical supervision; organization of disinfection, disinfestation and disinsection of vehicles, cargo, baggage (if indicated).

When a disease outbreak * occurs, the following quarantine measures are carried out:

active identification of patients and persons in contact with them;

hospitalization and treatment of patients, isolation of contacts, medical supervision and examination of people in the outbreak and traveling outside it;

introduction of restrictions on the entry and exit of the population outside the outbreak;

mobilization of necessary material means and transport;

organization of observation of persons leaving the quarantine zone;

compliance with sanitary requirements for goods, baggage, goods and postal items;

ensuring conditions for the production, sale and transportation of food products and raw materials beyond the outbreak, excluding the possibility of the spread of infection;

compliance with the sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic regimen;

the prohibition of receiving mail from the focus of quarantine diseases.

In addition, sanitary checkpoints and checkpoints are organized on all highways coming from the focus of quarantine diseases.

Quarantine measures are carried out until the complete elimination of the focus of the quarantine disease.

* Foci of quarantine diseases can be separate houses, settlements and their parts, districts, districts, regions, territories, republics where patients with quarantine infections are identified.
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