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Microbiological indicators of air

Air may contain microorganisms that cause human diseases and contaminate food.

Microorganisms enter the atmospheric air from the soil, from plants, the human and animal bodies, with dust, etc. Air is an unfavorable nutrient medium for many types of microorganisms, therefore, they only maintain viability in it for a certain time, and some of them die quite quickly under the influence of sunlight and moisture deficiency.

Atmospheric air, as a rule, contains saprophytic microflora, the amount of which decreases with height. The content of microbes in the air depends on the climate, season of the year, time of day, weather conditions, sanitary conditions of the area, etc. Above the seas and mountain peaks, the air is almost sterile - there are single cells in 1 m 3 of air.

The largest number of microorganisms is contained in indoor air with a large concentration of people, poor ventilation, in violation of the sanitary regime and personal hygiene. The level of microbial air pollution also depends on the type of processed products and the nature of technological operations. So, when sorting and packing vegetables, the number of microbes in indoor air increases hundreds of thousands of times.

Indoor air can be a factor in the transmission of many aerogenic infections. I distinguish two transmission methods:

• airborne droplets - microbial air pollution occurs when tiny particles of saliva, sputum are released during a conversation, coughing, sneezing. So, when sneezing, up to 40 thousand tiny droplets are formed, distributed at a distance of about 1.5 m. Microorganisms well retain their viability and virulence in liquid droplets. In this way, flu, sore throat, tuberculosis, pneumonia, diphtheria, measles, meningitis, etc .;

• air-dust path - microorganisms settle on dust particles (dust-bacterial mixture). In this state, some pathogens can remain in the room air for 2-3 hours (flu, diphtheria), and some for 3-4 months (tuberculosis).

During the sanitary-hygienic assessment of the premises, the total microbial contamination (in 1 m3), the content of representatives of the upper respiratory tract - hemolytic streptococci, the presence of mold and yeast are determined in the air.

Indoor air is considered clean if the number of microorganisms in 1 m3 does not exceed 2000, and the content of hemolytic streptococci is not more than 10.

At the enterprises of the food industry, special importance is given to the identification of sanitary-indicative microorganisms, pathogens of food poisoning and food spoilage.
No more than 100-500 bacteria per 1 m 3 should be present in the air of food production workshops, depending on the nature of production.

Of particular importance is the air of refrigerators. The degree of microbial seeding of air in them can reach hundreds of thousands and millions of cells in 1 m 3, which can infect the products stored there. The number of microorganisms in refrigerators increases with their unfavorable sanitary condition, as well as with an increase in temperature and shelf life of food products.

The air of cold rooms is examined for contamination with spores of mycelial fungi. The air of the chambers is considered good if the total number of spores of fungi settled on the Petri dish in 5 minutes does not exceed 10, satisfactory - 11-50, bad - more than 50. To prevent the development of microbes in storage rooms, it is necessary to whitewash and paint walls and ceilings regularly , systematically wash and disinfect floors.

Disinfectants in the form of aerosols, air treatment with nitrogen dioxide and lactic acid, as well as ozonation and ultraviolet irradiation are used to disinfect the air in industrial premises and cold rooms.

At catering and food industry enterprises, the protection of the air environment of premises in general and of working areas is ensured by landscaping and landscaping, timely removal of food waste, ventilation devices, the use of modern heating equipment, and the prohibition of the use of ammonia-based refrigeration units.
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Microbiological indicators of air

  1. Temperature and humidity. Monitoring of these indicators in educational and sports facilities
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  2. Atmospheric pressure and air movement, monitoring of these indicators in educational and sports facilities
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  3. Ionization of air. Air pollution factors, their effect on the human body
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  5. Air pollution as an important hygienic and environmental problem. Self-cleaning of air and its sanitary protection
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  6. Relationships between the maturity indicators of the conceptual structures of chemistry and indicators of chemical abilities
    To substantiate the position on mental structures as carriers of the subject’s properties, it is necessary to assess the influence of factors (in our case, the maturity indices of conceptual structures) on a number of dependent variables (indices of chemists' special abilities). Experimental sample - 372 second-year students of the Faculty of Chemistry who studied with the same teachers. One subgroup
  7. staff of the Research Institute of Atmospheric Air Protection (Atmosphere Research Institute). Toolkit for the calculation, regulation and control of emissions of pollutants into the air, 2005
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  9. Microbiological analysis
    Canned fish must be industrially sterile. Industrial sterility of canned food means the absence in the products of microorganisms capable of developing at storage temperatures established for this type of canned food, and the absence in the canned food of microbial toxins and microorganisms hazardous to consumer health. In cases where sterility is impaired, canned food is not sold
  10. Culture media and microbiological research
    Microbiological research is the isolation of pure cultures of microorganisms, the cultivation and study of their properties. Pure cultures are those made up of microorganisms of the same species. They are needed in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, to determine the species and type of microbes, in research, to obtain the vital products of microbes (toxins,
  11. Microbiological material collection
    In cases where it is suspected that death came from an infectious disease, it is necessary to take material for microbiological research. The sequence of opening the cavities and organs of the corpse in such cases varies somewhat: the section begins with those areas of the body where the material should be taken to avoid contamination of the section field and remove the material in the most sterile
  12. Microbiological examination
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  14. Microbiological safety assessment of praline sweets
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  15. Sanitary and microbiological studies
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  18. Topic: Microbiological basis of antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy.
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