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Microbiological indicators of air
Air may contain microorganisms that cause human diseases and contaminate food.
Microorganisms enter the atmospheric air from the soil, from plants, the human and animal bodies, with dust, etc. Air is an unfavorable nutrient medium for many types of microorganisms, therefore, they only maintain viability in it for a certain time, and some of them die quite quickly under the influence of sunlight and moisture deficiency.
Atmospheric air, as a rule, contains saprophytic microflora, the amount of which decreases with height. The content of microbes in the air depends on the climate, season of the year, time of day, weather conditions, sanitary conditions of the area, etc. Above the seas and mountain peaks, the air is almost sterile - there are single cells in 1 m 3 of air.
The largest number of microorganisms is contained in indoor air with a large concentration of people, poor ventilation, in violation of the sanitary regime and personal hygiene. The level of microbial air pollution also depends on the type of processed products and the nature of technological operations. So, when sorting and packing vegetables, the number of microbes in indoor air increases hundreds of thousands of times.
Indoor air can be a factor in the transmission of many aerogenic infections. I distinguish two transmission methods:
• airborne droplets - microbial air pollution occurs when tiny particles of saliva, sputum are released during a conversation, coughing, sneezing. So, when sneezing, up to 40 thousand tiny droplets are formed, distributed at a distance of about 1.5 m. Microorganisms well retain their viability and virulence in liquid droplets. In this way, flu, sore throat, tuberculosis, pneumonia, diphtheria, measles, meningitis, etc .;
• air-dust path - microorganisms settle on dust particles (dust-bacterial mixture). In this state, some pathogens can remain in the room air for 2-3 hours (flu, diphtheria), and some for 3-4 months (tuberculosis).
During the sanitary-hygienic assessment of the premises, the total microbial contamination (in 1 m3), the content of representatives of the upper respiratory tract - hemolytic streptococci, the presence of mold and yeast are determined in the air.
Indoor air is considered clean if the number of microorganisms in 1 m3 does not exceed 2000, and the content of hemolytic streptococci is not more than 10.
At the enterprises of the food industry, special importance is given to the identification of sanitary-indicative microorganisms, pathogens of food poisoning and food spoilage.
No more than 100-500 bacteria per 1 m 3 should be present in the air of food production workshops, depending on the nature of production.
Of particular importance is the air of refrigerators. The degree of microbial seeding of air in them can reach hundreds of thousands and millions of cells in 1 m 3, which can infect the products stored there. The number of microorganisms in refrigerators increases with their unfavorable sanitary condition, as well as with an increase in temperature and shelf life of food products.
The air of cold rooms is examined for contamination with spores of mycelial fungi. The air of the chambers is considered good if the total number of spores of fungi settled on the Petri dish in 5 minutes does not exceed 10, satisfactory - 11-50, bad - more than 50. To prevent the development of microbes in storage rooms, it is necessary to whitewash and paint walls and ceilings regularly , systematically wash and disinfect floors.
Disinfectants in the form of aerosols, air treatment with nitrogen dioxide and lactic acid, as well as ozonation and ultraviolet irradiation are used to disinfect the air in industrial premises and cold rooms.
At catering and food industry enterprises, the protection of the air environment of premises in general and of working areas is ensured by landscaping and landscaping, timely removal of food waste, ventilation devices, the use of modern heating equipment, and the prohibition of the use of ammonia-based refrigeration units.
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Microbiological indicators of air
- Temperature and humidity. Monitoring of these indicators in educational and sports facilities
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The composition of the air environment constantly includes a variety of extraneous impurities falling into it from various sources. Over time, as a result of human activities aimed at the development of technological progress, the number of such impurities to the air increases. Currently, the so-called clean air in settlements can only be practically shown
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- Microbiological analysis
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- Microbiological material collection
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- Microbiological examination
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- Microbiological infection
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- Microbiological safety assessment of praline sweets
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- Sanitary and microbiological research of water
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- Instructions for taking the test material for microbiological research
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