Licensed books on medicine
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DEFINITION OF HYGIENE AS A SCIENCE AND ITS TASKS.
Hygiene is a science that studies the impact of working and living conditions on public health. One of the most important tasks of modern hygiene is the development of hygiene rules, standards and measures to prevent the negative impact of various environmental factors (physical, chemical, biological) and socio-industrial relations on the human body, its performance and life expectancy.
Among the various consumer services enterprises that people use, hairdressing salons occupy a significant place.
Compliance of the device, equipment and operation of hairdressing salons with hygienic standards is a necessary condition for maintaining the health of visitors and workers of hairdressing salons.
The main task of hygiene in hairdressing salons is to prevent the occurrence and spread of contagious diseases. Hairdressing staff should know the basics of the anatomy and physiology of skin, hair and nails, be able to identify an infectious disease and how to spread it in hairdressing salons, be able to distinguish healthy skin from a diseased, healthy hair and nails from patients, know how to prevent infectious diseases, and also observe personal and professional hygiene. In other words, every hairdresser must be familiar with sanitation and hygiene.
In the sanitary rules approved by the deputy. The Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the USSR No. 981–72 dated 06/19/72, hygienic requirements aimed at eliminating the possibility of transmitting infectious diseases through a hairdresser were reflected.
The role of Russian and Soviet scientists and doctors in the development of hygiene (a brief historical outline). Hygiene is one of the most ancient sciences. Already in the most ancient monuments of Russian writing there are indications that during the construction of cities and villages it is necessary to avoid low and marshy areas, especially hazardous to health.
The activities of the great scientist of Central Asia Avicenna (Abu Ali Ibn Sina, 980-1037) were extremely important for the development of hygiene. In the famous "Canon of Medicine" he paid great attention to hygiene issues, in particular, observing the correct regime during all periods of a person's life. On this basis, he recommended ventilating homes, boiling or filtering water. Avicenna put forward a hypothesis about the invisible causative agents of "febrile" (infectious) diseases transmitted through water and air.
Of great importance for the development of the sanitary culture was the era of Peter I, which played such a large role in the history of Russia. It should be noted that Peter I himself led the conduct of many sanitary events. So, he personally wrote a manual on the protection of troops from disease during a campaign in Persia.
An exceptional role in the development of hygiene was played by the philosophical and natural science works of M.V. Lomonosov. In his treatise The First Foundations of Metallurgy or Ore Affairs (1763), he not only touched on the organization of labor and recreation of miners, rational protective clothing, removal of groundwater, etc., but also created an original theory of natural ventilation of mines.
Graduate of Moscow University S. G. Zybelin (1736-1802) was the first Russian professor in the medical faculty. He skillfully combined clinical and public health activities. A follower of Lomonosov, S. G. Zybelin, attached great importance to the influence of the external environment in the emergence and development of diseases. In 1871, S. G. Zybelin was one of the organizers of the fight against the plague epidemic in Moscow. Developed important practical measures to combat smallpox, treatment of childhood diseases by hardening the body.
Of other prominent doctors of the late XVIII century. can be called an associate of A. V. Suvorov, the head physician of E. T. Belopolsky. In his “Rules for Medical Ranks,” he writes that the causes of the incidence should not be sought in hospitals between patients, but between healthy people, examining their food, drink, structure of barracks and dugouts, construction time, space and tightness, cleanliness and various exhaustions.
In the second half of the XVIII century. In Russia, a number of books are published on various hygiene issues, devoted to the characterization of the influence on the body of certain elements of the external environment, diet, etc.
M. Ya. Mudrov (1776-1831) summarized and developed a whole system of hygienic measures for the prevention of diseases. In 1808, M. Ya. Mudrov for the first time in the history of medicine began to give an independent military hygiene course at Moscow University. A generalization of this course was the act speech he delivered on July 3, 1809, “The Word on the Benefits and Articles of Military Hygiene”. In this work, M. Ya. Mudrov succeeded with extraordinary depth in developing the tasks of hygiene in general and military hygiene in particular for Russian doctors.
M. Ya. Mudrov was directly involved in the fight against cholera epidemics (1830–1831) in Saratov and St. Petersburg.
I. E. Dyadkovsky (1784-1841) believed that the life of the human body is a constant and continuous interaction of the external forces of the surrounding nature and the internal forces of the human body. It is not surprising that, exploring the causes of diseases, he associated them with the harmful effects of the environment, that is, air, water, food, etc., he looked for the “harmful” effect of air in its chemical composition and “impurities of outsiders,” and also in its temperature and humidity.
N. I. Pirogov, G. A. Zakharyin, A. P. Dobroslavin, G. V. Khlopin and others. N. I. Pirogov played a huge role in the development of military and school hygiene in Russia. Being an ardent and staunch supporter of the need to develop a preventive direction in the activities of each doctor, he said that the future belongs to preventive medicine.
No less important for the development of hygiene was the activity of G. A. Zakharyin, who considered this science to be part of therapy and was an ardent advocate of the idea of a harmonious combination of drug treatment with hygiene and health measures.
In the second half of the XIX century, during the development of capitalism in Russia, our domestic hygiene began to develop as an experimental science, which was facilitated by the major successes of Russian natural sciences.
A.P. Dobroslavin (1842–1889) was the first professor in Russia to head an independent department of hygiene. Defining the tasks of this science, A.P. Dobroslavin wrote that the assistance provided by hygiene is of a public nature, and why hygiene exists mainly as public hygiene, public health. A.P. Dobroslavin was one of the leaders of the Russian Society for the Protection of Public Health, one of the organizers of the zemstvo sanitation, and founded and edited the popular science magazine "Health". On his initiative, an analytical station for food research was organized in St. Petersburg.
F. F. Zrisman (1842-1915) was the organizer of the Department of Hygiene at Moscow University, a special hygiene institute in Moscow and Russia's first city sanitary station. The three-volume guide, The Hygiene Course, written by F. F. Erisman, played a large role in the training of doctors. His book, Occupational Health, or Hygiene of Mental and Physical Labor, actually laid the foundation for occupational health in Russia.
The progressiveness of the scientific views of G. V. Khlopin (1863-1929) is expressed in the development of the best traditions of the Russian hygienic school - its social orientation and connection with practice. G.V. Khlopin was able to carry out a number of bills related to school-sanitary supervision, sanitary protection of air, water and soil of settlements, etc. In the post-revolutionary period he wrote works: "Fundamentals of Hygiene", "Essays on Professional Hygiene".
For the development of domestic preventive medicine, the criticism of V.I. Lenin of the sanitary dysfunction of tsarist Russia was important. This criticism proved irrefutably that devastating epidemics, enormous child and general mortality, the threat of degeneration of the working class and the working peasantry were the result of the existing state system and could only be eliminated if it was destroyed.
Among the great Russian scientists who had a great influence on the development of certain sections of hygiene can be attributed D. I. Mendeleev. Of particular importance for hygiene science are his work on the sanitary protection of atmospheric air, water bodies and soil. He sharply opposed the descent of untreated sewage into water bodies.
The characterization of the activities of Russian hygienists of the pre-revolutionary period in many respects will be incomplete, not to mention the difficult conditions they had to live and work in.
For any preventive measure it was necessary to overcome huge obstacles and even be threatened with administrative reprisals. Therefore, not all scientific discoveries and achievements of our domestic hygienists could be completed and implemented in sanitary practice.
Hygiene development in the USSR. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, a qualitatively new stage begins in the development of domestic hygiene. Science gets the broadest opportunities for developing basic hygiene problems, and most importantly, for realizing all its achievements. The program adopted by the VIII Congress of the RCP (B) in 1919 emphasizes the need for decisive implementation of broad sanitary measures, including the improvement of populated areas, the provision of catering on a scientific and hygienic basis, the organization of measures to prevent the development and spread of infectious diseases, and the creation of a sanitary legislation.
The young Soviet republic received a heavy sanitary and epidemiological legacy. The terrible sanitary condition of the workers' settlements, villages and villages of Tsarist Russia caused a high incidence and mortality of the population. Infectious gastrointestinal diseases were especially common.
By a decree of the Council of People's Commissars, the People’s Health Commissariat was created, headed by N. A. Semashko (1874-1949). The Narkomzdrav included a sanitary-epidemiological section. In the health departments of the Soviets of workers 'and peasants' deputies in the localities, sanitary and epidemiological departments were created.
So, in the most difficult conditions of the civil war, intervention and economic devastation, the foundation was laid for the sanitary organization of the young Soviet state, the legislative formulation of which subsequently was the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR “On the sanitary organs of the Republic” (September 15, 1929). The main task of the health authorities in the period 1918-1921. there was a struggle against epidemics, which was considered by the Soviet government as a nationwide task.
From the rostrum of the Seventh Congress of Soviets, V. I. Lenin called for mobilizing all the country's forces — party, Soviet organizations, medical workers, and the general public — to fight epidemics.
A large role in attracting the population to fight typhus was played by the working commissions created by decree of the Council of People's Commissars in early 1919.
Decrees of the Soviet government of this period on the control of typhus, cholera, smallpox, as well as improving bathing, water supply, sanitation and cleaning of populated areas, sanitary protection of dwellings laid the foundation for sanitary legislation.
It should be noted that during these years a number of large research institutes were founded: in 1920, the State Institute of Public Health was created, consisting essentially of 7 independent institutes (including the Sanitary and Hygienic Institute and the Institute of Nutrition); in 1921 - the Moscow Sanitary Institute named after F. F. Erisman, in 1923 - the Institute for the Study of Occupational Diseases named after V. A. Obukh in Moscow.
Thanks to the leadership and care of the party and government on the 10th anniversary of Soviet power, significant successes were achieved in protecting public health, as evidenced by a significant reduction in mortality. The years of the first five-year plan were also marked by important legislative acts that played a large role in the development of socialist healthcare: decisions of the party and government on the sanitary minimum, on measures to improve public catering, etc. December 23, 1933. The Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution on the creation of the All-Union State Sanitary Inspectorate. This significantly expanded the legal foundations of the sanitary organization, strengthened its control functions.
One of the prominent figures in the field of healthcare organization and the founder of social hygiene is N. A. Semashko.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution, N. A. Semashko did a lot to solve basic hygiene problems. He belongs to the indisputable merit in the legislative execution of a number of the most important sanitary measures related to the water supply and sewerage of cities, chlorination of water, labor protection, etc.
A.N. Marzeev (1863-1956) devoted his entire life to the protection of public health. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, he led the Ukrainian sanitary organization. A.N.Marzeev took an active part in the creation of the Ukrainian Institute of Communal Hygiene (1931).
A prominent role in the development of school hygiene belongs to A. V. Molkov (1870-1947). On his initiative and with direct participation, the first in the USSR department of school hygiene were organized. A. V. Molkov and his collaborators for the first time in the USSR began a systematic study of the dynamics of the physical development of children and adolescents.
V. A. Levitsky (1867-1936) began his medical career as a zemstvo doctor. In his work “Sanitary conditions for working in a hat industry”, in which he revealed the reasons for the physical degeneration of handicraftsmen engaged in the manufacture of felt hats using mercury. For several years, V. A. Levitsky persistently fought for the introduction of a mercury-free mode of operation, but ran into resistance from the manufacturers. Only under the conditions of the Soviet system was the issue of improving production quickly and successfully resolved.
In the development of Soviet legislation on labor protection, a huge role belongs to S. I. Kaplun (1897-1943). Under his leadership, many sections of the Labor Code have been developed. In 1925, on his initiative and with direct participation, the Scientific Research Institute of Labor Protection was organized. Since 1926 S.I. Kaplun headed the first in the USSR Department of Occupational Health organized on his initiative (now the Department of Occupational Health at the 1st Moscow Sechenov Moscow Medical Institute).
Of great importance for the hygiene of water supply in populated areas and the sanitary protection of water bodies are the studies of S. V. Moiseev, S. N. Stroganov, S. N. Cherkinsky and others. Actual problems of hygiene in the atmosphere are highlighted in the works of V. A. Ryazanov, R. A Babayants and other researchers. For the development of food hygiene, the activities of A.V. Reisler, as well as the studies of O.P. Molchanova and B.A. Lavrov and colleagues, are of great importance.
By the end of the pre-war period, Soviet health care had a fairly powerful centralized state sanitary organization, which had all the capabilities to conduct the widest recreational activities among the population. It should be emphasized that the successful implementation of these measures was largely determined by the close connection of sanitary and epidemiological institutions with the entire medical and preventive health care network. It was during these years that a broad social movement of the population for cleanliness and sanitary culture began to emerge. Thus, two basic principles of socialist health care were put into practice: the single treatment-and-prophylactic direction of Soviet medicine and the wide participation of workers in conducting recreational activities.
The Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), unlike past wars, was not accompanied by severe epidemics of infectious diseases. In the post-war years, fulfilling the tasks of the party and the government, the sanitary services did a lot to eliminate the sanitary consequences of the war, to further raise the sanitary condition of the USSR and improve the working and living conditions of the population.
In 1948, sanitary and epidemiological stations were recognized as the main institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service, the activities of which successfully combined control functions (sanitary surveillance functions) and the organization of broad preventive measures.
It should be emphasized that the achievements of Soviet hygienic science became possible due to the attention paid by the Communist Party and the Soviet Government to the protection of public health and the implementation of preventive measures.
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DEFINITION OF HYGIENE AS A SCIENCE AND ITS TASKS.
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