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The main stages of the development of food hygiene


The encyclopedic writings of Hippocrates (460–377 BC), Galen (about 130–200 years), Ibn Sipa (980–1037), and other scholars in ancient times generalized empirical medical knowledge, including and nutrition accumulated over many millennia.
Hippocrates in his essay “On Diet” indicates the need to study the properties of food substances used by humans, their effects on the body, the ratio between the amount of food and physical stress. In the treatise "On a diet for acute diseases," he emphasizes that the treatment of various diseases should be reduced mainly to the regulation of the diet, since nutrients should be a therapeutic agent. Hippocrates calls for moderation in food.
The ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 BC) expressed his thought about moderation in food with the following words: "A person eats to live, but does not live to eat." Many useful tips on the diet of a healthy and sick person are contained in the writings of Ibn Sina.
The ideas of Ibn Sina about the nutrition of children, the elderly, the characteristics of nutrition depending on the occupation, health status, climate, and human habits are interesting. He advocates moderation in nutrition, especially the elderly. Describing meat, milk, eggs, fruits, drinks and other products, Ibn Sina gives a detailed and fairly correct from the modern point of view assessment of their nutritional and biological value, describes methods for checking them.
Many interesting dietary tips can be found in a book entitled “Svyatoslav Izbornik” (1073 and 1076), which emphasizes the importance of vegetables in the diet of a sick and healthy person.
In the XIII century, in one of the articles of the charter of Yaroslav Vladimirovich, it was said that "who is a filthy of his own free will or to a mare or a bear ..." is subject to severe punishment.
However, the history of the current Russian state sanitary legislation in the field of food hygiene begins in 1546, when Ivan the Terrible signed a special decree on the rules for the receipt, transportation and sale of salt to prevent pollution and the ingress of harmful impurities into it. In the collection Stoglavy Sobor (1551), an attempt was made to legislatively regulate nutrition issues, where one of the sections prohibits the use of black pudding for food. For that time, this prohibition should be recognized as reasonable, since there were no proper conditions for the receipt, storage and quality control of perishable sausages.
In the decree “In memory of the bailiffs appointed in Moscow for watching and selling bread” (1624), it was proposed to strictly monitor the baking and sale of bread: “Watch and hold firmly so that the bread sieve and sieve, and chopped and crushed bread rolls were baked, and in bread would be thick and there would be no mix ... ". Another document of this period prescribes for the sale of meat of sick animals "whip without mercy." In 1629, a decree was issued to streamline trade in products. At the end of the XVII and the beginning of the XVIII century, the state finally assumed the function of controlling the receipt, storage and sale of food products, as well as the organization of food for certain groups of the population.
In 1718, a decree of Peter I “On the procedure for the sale of food products” was issued, which demanded: “... where table grubs are sold, so that they would not sell any unhealthy edible grubs, but more harmful than that, but everyone would keep healthy ... ". It was ordered that people selling food should wear white clothes and keep the place clean. The police were asked to strictly monitor that they did not sell spoiled products. Merchants who showed spoiled products, as well as selling "carrion" were ordered to "beat the gods and deportation to hard labor." It was forbidden to place meat rows, slaughterhouses and flies near housing.
At the end of the 18th century, the first book on medical care (hygiene and sanitation) = “The Inscriptions of Medical Improvement or the Means Dependent on the Government for Preservation and Public Health” (1795), written by I. Kh. Veltsin (1767–1829) appeared. I. Kh. Veltsin proposes to introduce state control over products, to legitimize a strict ban on falsification of products. He also raises the issue of introducing control over food technology.

The first guide to food sanitation was compiled by S. F. Hotovitsky (1796–1885). In this work, the author substantiates in detail the provisions relating to various nutrition issues. When writing separate sections of the manual, S. F. Khotovitsky used the scientific data of related specialties, the data of numerous domestic decrees, charters and rules relating to nutrition.
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The main stages of the development of food hygiene

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