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Sanitary control over the production and use of materials intended for contact with food






At the food industry enterprises of the corresponding branches of agriculture, public catering and trade systems, various products (utensils, containers, packaging, equipment, implements, consumer goods, etc.) are used in everyday life, made of various materials: metals and alloys, porcelain, faience, glass and a relatively new type of materials (see, below) - polymer. From a hygienic point of view, each material has its advantages and disadvantages.
The permission of the USSR Ministry of Health must be obtained for new types of materials (new grades) intended for contact with food products (issued in the form of preventive sanitary supervision after in-depth sanitary-chemical studies and toxicological experiments on animals in specialized hygienic scientific institutions). This is due to the fact that the ingredients of the formulation that are harmful to human health: chemical elements and their compounds, organic substances, etc., can be released from materials (products) in the process of use.
When conducting current (territorial) sanitary supervision of the production and use of materials intended for contact with food products, the following is monitored: availability of a permit of the USSR Ministry of Health for grades of material and assortment of manufactured products, normative and technical documentation agreed upon in the established procedure with state sanitary inspection authorities, and also instructions on the use and terms of use of products of the assortment; the identity of the material recipe, technology for the production and processing of permitted brands; frequency and scope of production control on hygienic indicators of product quality; sampling of products (products, etc.) for selective research for compliance with hygiene requirements; conducting expert sanitary-chemical studies in the SES laboratory (organoleptic analysis and study of migration into the model environments of the limiting material ingredients in the temperature-time interval taking into account the expected operating conditions of the products and using methods approved by the USSR Ministry of Health; assessment of the results based on hygiene requirements and standards). The work is carried out according to the scheme, requirements and methods of the current instructive and regulatory documents in relation to the field and conditions of practical use of a specific material (product): “Instructions for the sanitary-chemical research of products made from polymer and other materials intended for contact with food products” ( No. 880-71 ^ "Sanitary-chemical research of steel enameled utensils. Guidelines" (No. 1856-78); "On improving the efficiency of the state sanitary Zora and scientific research on the regulation of the production and use of polymer and synthetic materials "(Order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, No. 444 of 04/02/85"); "Guidelines for the implementation of state sanitary supervision of the production and use of polymer materials of the class of polyolefins ..." (No. 414986); "Sanitary standards. DCM of chemical substances released from polymeric and other materials in contact with food, and methods for their determination" (San PiN 42-123-4240-86); “On the procedure for consideration and approval by the bodies of state sanitary supervision of drafts of normative and technical documentation for materials for consumer goods” (Information letter, No. 121-5 / 274-4, dated June 16, 88; it is emphasized that the approval of technical documentation by the state sanitary authority supervision is valid throughout the whole country), as well as the "List of materials authorized by the USSR Ministry of Health for use in the food industry and food machinery" (published annually and summarized for several lko s).
Basic hygiene requirements for products made of materials in contact with food: the material should not affect the organoleptic properties of the food product (color change, odor, taste, etc.) and should be transferred to the food product (or model media during sanitary-chemical research) components in quantities harmful to health. From a hygienic point of view, the absence of harmful substances in the composition of the material is important.
In the general hygienic plan, products must meet the specific requirements of the industries of the relevant food industries. For products of repeated, prolonged use, stability of hygienic properties during operation is of paramount importance. Most materials, including polymeric ones, are characterized by the migration of substances in a decreasing mode (during a sanitary-chemical study, as the number of product treatments with model media increases, the concentration of substances in the hoods decreases). At the same time, it is necessary to require the correct use of products made of polymeric materials (that is, packaging and storing products in them only according to the product labeling, for example, “For bulk food products”, “For cold food products”, or in accordance with the instructions for their use) .
To ensure these requirements in real operating conditions, the materials should be characterized by high resistance to acid-base and temperature-time parameters of various food products, sanitary regimes of washing and disinfection, and mechanical stress. The necessary properties are also a smooth, non-porous (polished) and light surface (the inner surface should have a light tone, making it easy to evaluate the sanitary processing of the product), simplicity of design, convenient for cleaning, washing and disinfection of the product.
Of materials based on metals and alloys, stainless steel is most suited to hygiene requirements. Decorated (patterned) assortment predominates in modern porcelain and faience ware, in which the underglaze decoration options are characterized by the best hygienic properties.
Given the extent of use for the manufacture of products intended for contact with food products (containers, containers, utensils, packaging films, coatings, refrigerator parts, gaskets and closures, filter materials, etc.), the following polymeric materials are used: polyolefins, polyamides, polystyrenes, polycarbonate, polyvinyl chloride, fluoroplasts, aminos. Polymeric materials contain the main component (polymer obtained as a result of complex chemical reactions of polymerization and polycondensation of monomers) and auxiliary substances (additives - stabilizers, antioxidants, plasticizers, dyes, modifying agents, lubricants, etc.
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Sanitary control over the production and use of materials intended for contact with food

  1. Polymer materials intended for contact with food
    Hygienic requirements for products made of polymeric materials. For polymeric materials in contact with food, along with such requirements as strength, economy, manufacturability, consumer acceptability, decorativeness, the possibility of disposal, etc., certain hygienic requirements are imposed. These requirements are set out in the “Instruction for sanitary-chemical
  2. Sanitary requirements for food manufacturing enterprises
    Food production enterprises include meat, dairy, bakery, and confectionery industries, as well as food and taste production (tea factories, etc.), livestock complexes, dairy farms, and poultry farms. When conducting ongoing sanitary inspection, it is recommended to inspect the enterprise along the process (specific,
  3. HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF EQUIPMENT, CONTAINERS, TABLEWARE, PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRODUCTS
    For the manufacture of containers, equipment, utensils, inventory, packaging, materials are used that are allowed by the USSR Ministry of Health for contact with food. Cookware, equipment coating ”containers are made of various materials: glass, metals, wood, paper, cardboard, clay, minerals, various polymeric materials. These materials must meet
  4. Sanitary control of the use of pesticides and their residues in food
    In carrying out current sanitary supervision on the protection of food products from pollution by pesticides, one should be guided by the “Sanitary rules for the storage, transportation and use of pesticides (pesticides) in agriculture” (No. 1123-73), other instructive, regulatory and guidance materials (see Order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, No. 874 of
  5. HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE USE OF FOOD ADDITIVES AND MATERIALS CONTACTING WITH FOOD
    HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE USE OF FOOD ADDITIVES AND MATERIALS CONTACTING WITH FOOD
  6. SANITARY CONTROL OF VEGETABLE FOOD PRODUCTS
    SANITARY CONTROL OF VEGETABLE FOOD
  7. Monitoring compliance with general sanitary requirements for food facilities
    General principles for the placement and improvement of a food object. A land plot, sanitary improvement of industrial premises, equipment and the manufacturing process of a food enterprise must comply with hygienic requirements and standards: “Planning, development of cities, towns and rural settlements” (SNiP P-60-75), “Norms and specifications
  8. Rules for conducting control measures in the implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance
    Control measures during the implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance are carried out in accordance with Federal Law of March 30, 1999 N 52-ФЗ “On the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population” by officials of bodies and institutions authorized to carry out state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. When conducting control activities
  9. Hygienic examination of materials in contact with food
    The purpose of the lesson: to know the basic hygiene requirements for materials in contact with food and be able to conduct laboratory examination. Work content: 1. Acquaintance with the basic hygiene requirements for materials in contact with food. 2. Sanitary-chemical research of products from polymeric materials. 3.
  10. Food control
    To assess the quality of raw materials, semi-finished products, auxiliary materials, finished products in our country, two indicators are mainly used — total bacterial contamination (OBO) and the number of bacteria of the intestinal group (mainly Escherichia coli). General bacterial contamination. It is determined mainly by the cup method. The analysis involves four steps: preparation
  11. Sanitary control of the use of food additives
    Food additives (preservatives, dyes, aromatizing and flavoring substances, antioxidants, stabilizers, enzyme preparations, salt and sugar substitutes, etc.) are introduced into food products at various stages of production, storage and transportation to give them certain (necessary from a technological point of view) properties : preservation of natural qualities, nutritional properties and
  12. Food Sanitary Examination
    Sanitary examination of food products (sanitary-hygienic assessment) is aimed at identifying properties that characterize the nutritional value or harmlessness of products for human health. Its task is to check the qualitative and quantitative indicators provided by GOST (OST) for a given type of food product, and especially to determine the suitability for eating non-standard
  13. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY-HYGIENIC CONTROL IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY
    The task of microbiological control is the possible rapid detection and identification of the paths of penetration of pest microorganisms into production, foci and their degree of reproduction at certain stages of the technological process; preventing the development of extraneous microflora through the use of various preventive measures; active destruction by disinfection in order to obtain
  14. SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF FOOD
    Compliance with sanitary requirements during transportation, reception, storage, mechanical culinary and heat treatment of food products, as well as at the stage of storage and sale of finished food contributes to the preservation of the nutritional value of products, prevention of contamination of food products and prepared food with bacteria (including pathogenic ones), prevention food poisoning and intestinal infections.
  15. VETERINARY AND SANITARY QUALITY CONTROL OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN THE MARKETS
    The quality of food products of animal origin during their implementation on collective farm breakthroughs is controlled by veterinary specialists of the laboratories of veterinary and sanitary expertise. Laboratories of veterinary and sanitary expertise organize in the market in the prescribed manner. They are part of the city or district station for the fight against animal diseases, the district (inter-district) veterinary laboratory.
  16. Features of the preparation of didactic materials for technical means of control
    As noted, the main means of providing feedback in the educational process is ongoing monitoring. It is the most widespread type of control and therefore difficult to implement on a large scale without the use of technical means. In order to introduce technical means of control into the educational process, standardization of control operations is necessary. Essence of standardized or
  17. Sanitary requirements for food transportation
    For transportation of food special transport is used. Sanitary control over the transportation of food products is carried out periodically at transport bases, as well as during the delivery of products to their destination, when they are unloaded at public catering facilities and other facilities. Vehicles must be specialized for the transport of a particular type of food
  18. Instruction No. 154.021.98 IP for the use of “Single-use sterilization indicators IS-120, IS-132, IS-160, IS-180” for monitoring the parameters of operating modes of steam and air sterilizers
    AGREED Director NIID Academician RAMS MG Shandala, 1/7/99. I APPROVE: A.A., Head of the Department of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision Monisov 07/18/99. control of parameters of modes (temperature, time) of operation of steam and air sterilizers. The use of indicators makes it possible to detect non-compliance with the sterilization regime due to the technical malfunction of the sterilizers,
  19. The tasks of sanitary control in connection with the use of fertilizers in agricultural production (nitrates, etc.)
    Widespread use in modern agricultural production, especially intensive technology options, nitrogenous fertilizers (components of mineral fertilizers, industrial wastewater and their precipitation; decomposition products of organic nitrogenous substances, etc.) can lead to an increased content of nitrates, nitrites, nitrosamines in food products, nitrosamides (in
  20. BASES OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND VETERINARY AND SANITARY EXAMINATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
    dairy products. The dairy industry produces more than 100 items of whole-milk products, of which 2/3 are the assortment of fermented milk. In recent years, increased production of low-fat and non-fat dairy products. For the production of dairy products, reservoir and thermostatic methods are used. The essence of the reservoir method is that after
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