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Evaluation of the results of sanitary-helminthological studies

A correct assessment of the results of sanitary-helminthological studies of environmental objects is of great importance both for scientific work and for practical sanitary service. In order to be able to compare the results of their own research in dynamics, as well as those of other authors, it is necessary to adhere to certain standard indicators. Each sample should be weighed or measured (soil, vegetable samples per 1 kg; water - 1 l or 1 m3).

To evaluate the results of studies of washes from household items, it is necessary to specify a time criterion, i.e. the number of minutes used to collect 1 sample (for example, 3 minutes) or objects - from 10 plates, 10 dolls, 5 door handles, etc. For an accurate judgment about the contamination of helminths with eggs by an object, each sample should be the larger the smaller the number of eggs expected to be found (for example, a sample of drinking water should be 50 l, from open water - 25 l, and sewage - from 1 to 5 l).
Count the number of positive samples in which helminth eggs were found; the number of detected helminth eggs in each sample (by type of helminth, indicating the characteristics of humans or animals), the number of viable or deformed eggs; number of invasive eggs, i.e. with moving larvae with covers.
A sample record of the results of sanitary-helminthological studies in the laboratory journal is presented in table. 12.
Table 12. A sample record of the results of sanitary-helminthological studies in the laboratory journal
Place of fence Pick up date Date investigated Research method
samples samples sampling
Soil on top 24 / V 25 / V N.A. Romanomanko and
garden notes G.Sh. Gudzhabidze

The amount of test material, g or l Helminth eggs detected
in sample average 1 kg go 1 liter
25.0 10 roundworm eggs, of which 8 are viable, 2 are deformed 400 roundworm eggs, of which 320 are viable, the rest are deformed

In the conclusion on the sanitary maintenance of the object, it is necessary to indicate the total number of samples studied and the number of positive ones, the number of detected helminth eggs by species (roundworm, teniid, etc.), the number of invasive eggs. The percentage of viable eggs can be calculated only when viewing a significant number of them (at least 100); if single eggs are found, then absolute numbers are given.
When giving a conclusion about the degree of contamination of environmental objects with helminth eggs, as well as making epidemiological conclusions about the transmission of invasion, it is necessary to take into account how real the possibility of helminth eggs getting into the human digestive tract. So, the presence of 5 ascaris eggs per 1 kg of carrots is much more dangerous than 100 eggs in 1 kg of soil.
In addition, the location of helminth eggs should be kept in mind. So, in children's institutions, from the point of view of the danger of infecting children, it is impossible to compare the degree of soil seeding in garbage bins, latrines, where children usually do not visit, and their permanent places of residence (sandboxes, playgrounds).
It is very important to indicate the type of identified helminth eggs. Detection of helminths eggs in soil or on other objects that are characteristic only of animals will not indicate the presence of fecal contamination, and nevertheless, some of them should also be taken into account, since they can cause human infection and can be the causes of diseases caused by the larval forms of these helminths. Thus, the presence of invasive eggs of ascaridates of cats and dogs in the soil of children's institutions is associated with the possibility of infection of people with these helminths at the larval stages (larva migrans). The detection of Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium Ianceatum eggs in the soil indicates that the soil was fertilized with manure. At the same time, the danger of infection for a person (through mollusks or ants) is not excluded; cases of fascioliasis and human dicroceliosis are described in Russia and abroad.
If garden eggs and ascarids and whipworm eggs are identified in the soil, a thorough epidemiological analysis should be carried out, i.e. to find out how the soil was fertilized or contaminated, whether pigs are on the farm, whether they are affected by ascariasis, etc. After all, ascaris and human whipworm eggs are morphologically indistinguishable from roundworm and whipworm eggs. Very important criteria for evaluation are the viability and invasiveness of the detected helminth eggs. The determination of the viability and invasiveness of eggs in percent is given only on the basis of viewing a significant number of them (at least 100-200).
When discussing the results of the study of washes from household items, one should also differentially approach the assessment of their seeding with helminth eggs. There should be no helminth eggs on dishes, toys, oilcloths on tables, while on bedding and underwear, single eggs can be even with frequent changes if infected children sleep or wear it.
When sending the results of analyzes of environmental objects to children’s or other institutions, an epidemiological report should be written in writing, indicating the necessary measures for processing vegetables before eating, to improve the quality of cleaning, neutralizing toys, etc.
The assessment of the degree of contamination of various environmental objects by helminth eggs in each region is different and depends on a number of factors: the prevalence of the population with various helminth infections, hygiene skills, and the sanitary condition of the populated area.
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Evaluation of the results of sanitary-helminthological studies

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