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Food poisoning by products poisonous in nature
This group of food-borne non-microbial poisoning includes poisoning by fungi, poisonous plants, weeds of cereals with poisonous seeds and animal products.
Mushroom poisoning. Around the world, there are about 7 thousand species of cap mushrooms, but about half are edible. The following types of mushrooms are distinguished:
Poisonous mushrooms - contain toxic substances that cause poisoning in humans.
Certainly poisonous mushrooms - do not lose their toxicity when processed by any means (pale grebe, some fly agarics, false mushrooms, etc.)
Conditionally edible mushrooms - poisonous properties in them disappear with appropriate processing (cooking, drying, salting) before eating. These include milky mushrooms (throats, black breasts, etc.) that secrete caustic juice, which is destroyed by salting. The group of conditionally edible mushrooms includes morels, stitches, caustic russula, valui, etc.
Inedible mushrooms are not poisonous, but they have an unpleasant taste or smell, which persist even after prolonged treatment (bile fungus, false raincoat, etc.).
There are several groups of poisonings, depending on the toxic beginning of the mushrooms:
Group 1 - poisoning with lines containing gyromitrin, which releases a very toxic monomethylhydrazine during hydrolysis, which causes cellular damage. Signs of poisoning appear after 6-10 hours and are accompanied by a feeling of weakness, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes diarrhea. With untimely treatment, mortality is 16-50%. However, this toxin is destroyed after drying the lines for 3-4 weeks and the mushrooms can be eaten.
The lines are very similar to morels, but morels can be consumed after 20 minutes of boiling and draining the broth, as the deadly toxic toxin passes into the broth. After washing with water, morels are completely neutralized.
Group 2 - poisoning with the most poisonous mushrooms - pale grebe and similar types of mushrooms, eaten mistakenly due to the similarity with mushrooms, rows and russules. The toxic substances of the pale toadstool belong to the strongest cell poisons - cyclopeptides with hepatotropic and neurotropic effects. When heated and under the influence of digestive enzymes, toxins are not destroyed.
8-24 hours after consumption, sudden pain in the abdomen, frequent diarrhea, indomitable vomiting, general weakness, lowering body temperature, etc. appear. Mortality up to 50% and more often occurs on the 2-3rd day.
Group 3 - poisoning with fly agaric. The active principle is muscarine and muscaridine. Poisoning occurs after 1-4 hours and is accompanied by salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, narrowing of the pupils, in severe cases, hallucination, delirium, convulsions. Lethal outcomes are rare.
In recent years, evidence has emerged of poisoning by a pig containing a toxin that is not destroyed by heat, similar to muscarin of red mushroom and capable of accumulating heavy metals.
Group 4 - poisoning by poisonous false mushrooms. Poisoning is observed when they are accidentally eaten along with edible honey mushrooms and are accompanied by an upset digestive tract. The chemical nature of toxins has not yet been established.
According to the classification of G. Linkoff and D. Mitchell (USA), mushroom poisoning is divided into four categories based on the observed consequences and the time of the onset of symptoms of poisoning.
The first category is poisoning with fungi containing toxins that cause cellular damage to the liver and kidneys. Symptoms of poisoning appear after about 10 hours, after which death occurs.
The second category is poisoning with fungi containing toxins that affect the autonomic nervous system. The first symptoms of poisoning appear after 0.5-2 hours.
The third category is poisoning by fungi containing dangerous toxins that affect the central nervous system. The action of these toxins appears after 0.5-2 hours after eating mushrooms. This category includes poisoning by some mushrooms of the Amanita genus, which cause intoxication, manic behavior, delusional state and deep sleep, as well as fungi of the Psilocybe genus containing psilocybin, which causes intoxication, detachment from reality, severe hallucinations and almost 50% loss memory.
The fourth category is poisoning with fungi containing toxins that cause gastrointestinal upsets. Symptoms of poisoning appear after 0.5-3 hours. In most cases, the active principle is unknown.
Prevention of mushroom poisoning consists in the knowledge of the distinctive features of edible, poisonous, conditionally edible and inedible mushrooms, methods of processing edible and conditionally edible mushrooms, in compliance with sanitary rules for the preparation, processing and sale of edible mushrooms. According to these rules, only mushrooms of a strictly defined assortment can be harvested and sold. Mushrooms sorted by individual species are subject to procurement and sale.
Mushrooms arriving at harvesting and processing points must be healthy, cleaned of land and debris (flabby, overgrown and wormy mushrooms are not accepted).
Mushrooms are carefully inspected, sorted and washed. A mandatory sanitary condition is the processing of mushrooms on the day of their intake.
Only fresh mushrooms that meet sanitary requirements are accepted for sale on the market. It is strictly forbidden to sell a mixture of mushrooms, consisting of various species, as well as mushroom caviar, salads and other products from crushed mushrooms. The canned home-made mushrooms in hermetically sealed dishes pose a great danger, since most of the reported cases of botulism are associated with the consumption of mushrooms prepared in this way.
To prevent mushroom poisoning, their proper technological processing and public health education are of great importance.
Poisoning by poisonous plants. Poisoning can be related to feed or grazing on pastures where poisonous plants grow. Toxic substances of such plants can accumulate in the body of an animal and contaminate food products.
Grain processing products contaminated by the poisonous impurities of some weed plants of cereal crops — the seeds of the trichodesma gray-haired, the heliotrope of the fruited, and the intoxicating chaff — pose a serious danger to human health. When eating bread baked from flour that contains the seeds of trichodesma gray-haired, a serious illness occurs, manifested by symptoms of encephalitis or meningoencephalitis (damage to the central nervous system). Food poisoning caused by the consumption of products made from grain clogged with heliotrope seeds is characterized by damage to the nervous system and proceeds in the form of toxic hepatitis.
The content of impurities of poisonous seeds of some weeds in grain and flour is strictly regulated, and admixture of seeds of trichodesma gray-haired is not allowed.
Poisoning with animal products. Poisoning can be associated with eating foods from the adrenal gland and pancreas of slaughtered animals.
Currently, due to a significant increase in the entry of sea fish to the market and the expansion of its species composition, poisoning associated with fish is increasingly observed among the population.
Siguater - arises as a result of eating fish containing siguatoxin, siguaterin and meytotoxin. The structure of these toxins is still unknown. To date, more than 400 siguatoxic marine fish species, typically tropical, are known. Poisoning is initially characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances, and then neurological disorders appear (tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue and limbs, metallic taste, headache, dizziness, visual impairment, toothache, itching, cramps, etc.). Typically, these symptoms last for several hours or weeks, in severe cases, can be observed for about 25 years. Sometimes a fatal outcome is possible in the first 10 minutes or a few days after consuming siguatoxic fish.
In order to prevent ciguaters, large and old fish that accumulate toxin should not be eaten, especially in the internal organs and liver.
Tetrodon poisoning - poisoning by species of pufferfish, among which there are about 80 toxic species. Pufferfish are considered a delicacy in Japan. The toxic substance causing the poison is tetrodotoxin. This is one of the most potent toxic nerve agents. It causes convulsions and death in people within 1.5-8 hours as a result of respiratory paralysis. Mortality reaches 61%. The antidote is unknown. The toxin does not break down when boiled.
Scombroid poisoning - most often observed when eating tuna, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, representatives of the Scombroi-dea family. Symptoms of scombroid poisoning resemble an allergic reaction to histamine and are characterized by facial flushing, severe headache, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Fatalities are rare. Most poisoning of this type is the result of bacterial decomposition during improper storage of fish. It is believed that the bacterial decarboxylation of histidine, which occurs in the muscles of fish with dark meat, forms histamine, which in the presence of a specific synergist causes scombroid poisoning. This is confirmed by data on an increase in the content of histamine in fish even before the first signs of spoilage appear and there are no organoleptic changes.
Prevention: compliance with the recommended storage conditions for fish, excluding the possibility of bacterial spoilage and the accumulation of toxic substances. The amount of histamine should not exceed 100 mg / kg in tuna, mackerel, salmon and herring (fresh, chilled and frozen).
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Food poisoning by products poisonous in nature
- Food poisoning with products poisonous under certain conditions
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