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Acute poisoning is accidental or occurs in case of gross violations of the rules for the use of pesticides and the rules for the use of products treated with pesticides.
In this regard, violations of the rules for the use of seed grains treated with pesticides are of particular danger. The use of such grains for food purposes is not allowed.
Chronic poisoning occurs as a result of prolonged intake of pesticides in humans at doses slightly exceeding the established allowable residual amounts (DOC).
From a hygienic point of view, pesticides are particularly dangerous, characterized by high toxicity, environmental stability, pronounced cumulativeness and the ability to stand out with the milk of lactating animals and the milk of nursing mothers. The most typical representatives possessing these properties are organochlorine pesticides. Side effects and long-term effects are also characteristic of pesticide poisoning, which are manifested by embryotoxic, gonadotropic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects, weakening of the immune response, allergenic, blastomogenic and carcinogenic effects.
Brief description of the main pesticides. Organochlorine pesticides are characterized, as a rule, by medium and high toxicity, have pronounced cumulative properties, are able to be excreted in the milk of lactating animals, and are stable in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides, entering the body, affect the parenchymal organs, endocrine, central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Organochlorine pesticides include: hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, celtan, polychlorinene, chlorotene, pertan, methoxychlor, ether sulfonate.
Organophosphorus pesticides have high insecticidal efficacy, are rapidly inactivated in the environment, hydrolyzed by water, decompose upon exposure to heat, and do not accumulate in the biosphere and soil.
In the mechanism of action of organophosphorus compounds on the body, the leading is the inhibition of cholinesterase, a change in the activity of catalase is also noted. Organophosphate pesticides include octamethyl, metaphos, phosphamide, karbofos, chlorophos, etc.
Derivatives of carbamic acid - carbamates - have a wide spectrum of action, high insecticidal activity and relatively low environmental stability.
Individual pesticides of this group are able to cumulate in the body, have a carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effect. When ingested, carbamates affect the central nervous system and parenchymal organs. Carbamates include dicresil, tsir, cineb, eptam, ronite, carbine, etc.
Organo-mercury pesticides are highly toxic, stable in the environment, have pronounced cumulative properties, and are stored in food for a long time. Organosilicon compounds include granosan and mercury. These preparations are allowed to be used only for the treatment of seed grain used for sowing.
Prevention of pesticide poisoning. Measures to prevent chronic pesticide poisoning include:
- the complete exclusion in food products of residual pesticides that are stable in the environment and have pronounced cumulative properties;
- the use in food of food products containing pesticides or their metabolites in quantities that do not have a harmful effect;
- the use for processing food crops of pesticides with a short half-life, ensuring the maximum release of the edible part of the products from the pesticide residues by the time of their commercial maturity;
- strict compliance with the requirements of the instructions for the use of a pesticide;
- control over the content of pesticide residues in food and the prohibition of the use in food products containing pesticides above acceptable levels.
An important section of food hygiene is the sanitary examination of food for the content of pesticide residues. With strict and precise adherence to the instructions, any risk of pesticide contamination of products is virtually eliminated.
In the hygienic examination of crops as its main element includes the study of documentation on the form, form, frequency and timing of pesticides. Often, the study of only one documentation allows you to make the right decision on admission to the food use of a given batch of products. When using pesticides with a systemic systemic effect, there is a need for laboratory research. Laboratory studies of products are carried out in cases where gross violations of the instructions for use of the pesticide have been identified, especially in relation to the established frequency and timing of use, and when it is not known which pesticide and in what form it was used.
Monitoring compliance with the requirements of the instructions in the processing of crops with pesticides is the first condition for the safety of pesticides. This main task can be solved only with the responsible attitude of all agronomists, technicians, foremen and workers who organize the processing of crops with pesticides and participate in it.
The sale of food products containing pesticide residues in quantities exceeding permissible concentrations. When deciding on the suitability for nutrition of batches of products treated with pesticides, hygiene data should be taken into account. Often, SES in case of detection of pesticides in food products in quantities above the maximum permissible solves the question of the possibility of their use. The following ways of selling such products are recommended.
Grain with DDT content can be used as a seed or, for technical needs (industrial alcohol, starch, glue). When the content of HCH in an amount significantly exceeds the maximum permissible norms, grain is used for technical needs, with a slight excess it can be sorted with grain free of HCH, provided that the residual amount of the preparation is brought to an acceptable norm.
With the content of increased amounts of fumigants (dichloroethane and chloropicrin), prolonged degassing is necessary, followed by their determination.
Potatoes containing HCH or its isomers above acceptable levels are processed into starch or used for planting. Milk containing DDT is processed into lean cottage cheese. The main amount of DDT is soluble in fat and found in cream, so they are used only for technical needs. Cream and sweet cream butter, in which the residual amounts of organochlorine pesticides exceed the allowable amounts, can be used for the preparation of confectionery products so that the finished product contains their residues not exceeding the maximum allowable amounts.
Small batches of meat containing organochlorine compounds can be used for sorting in the manufacture of sausages.
Fish with a high content of organochlorine pesticides can be used in canned fish and vegetables.
The presence of organic mercury preparations in grain is not permitted. Grain containing these preparations can only be used for sowing purposes. Fruits and berries with a high content of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides can be processed into juices and wines subject to filtration.
Apples and pears can also be processed into jam, preserves, jams or dried after peeling, which usually contains most of the pesticide.
Raspberries and strawberries processed with organochlorine preparations can only be used for processing into wine with mandatory filtration.
Fruits and berries, treated with contact organophosphorus compounds, can be used after aging for 1-2 weeks, if the type of culture and variety allows, otherwise they can be processed into jam, jam, jam.
Products contaminated with organophosphorus pesticides are partially or completely neutralized by exposure to high temperature, water, prolonged exposure, etc.
Fruits and berries can be processed for jam, jam, jam, dried fruits after pre-washing. In the case of residual amounts of organophosphorus compounds 3-4 times higher than permissible, fruits must be peeled before processing, especially when the fozalon is contained.
Vegetables can be processed into sterilized canned food. It is not recommended to ferment cabbage and other vegetables, since metaphos, thiophos, chlorophos are stored in an acidic environment for a long time.
Citrus fruits in large quantities accumulate organophosphorus compounds in the peel, so they are used only after cleaning, including for obtaining juices. The peel is used in confectionery for candied fruits, zest is prohibited. Grain with residual amounts of organophosphorus compounds must be thoroughly ventilated and subsequently sorted in quantities that meet acceptable standards. Grain and flour are recommended for baking bakery products.
Milk containing chlorophos can only be used after boiling.
Products contaminated with preparations of carbamic and dithiocarbamic acids (sevine, tsira, TMTD, etc.) are used only under the following conditions: apples are not allowed to be stored and must be processed for jam and jam after peeling (when keeping sevine), and when contaminated after preliminary washing with polycarbacin and cineb, they are processed to the same products.
Grain and flour contaminated with kineb are used for baking bread. Products contaminated with TMTD and ciram are forbidden to eat.
Products contaminated with arsenic-containing preparations are allowed in food provided that the content of arsenic in vegetable and fruit preserves does not exceed 1 mg / kg, taking into account the natural amount; meat can be used in sausage production under the condition of the same residual amount; broths are destroyed. The internal organs and bones of animals poisoned by arsenic preparations are not allowed to go on sale.
Products contaminated with organo-mercury pesticides are not allowed to be consumed. However, during sanitary examination, it should be borne in mind that the USSR Ministry of Health approved the following standards for the total mercury content in fish products and cooking: river fish — 0.2, canned fish and fish cooked from river fish — up to 0.3 (in terms of fish), sea and ocean fish (except tuna) - 0.5, canned food and cookery from it - up to 0.5 (in terms of fish), tuna - up to 0.7, canned food from it - up to 1 mg / kg.
Organo-mercury pesticides are often used for dressing seeds, grains, sunflower seeds, hemp, etc. If their use is not strictly controlled, cases of poisoning are possible, especially in adolescents, with accidental use of sunflower seeds. To exclude such cases, pickled seeds are recommended to be mixed with some dye.
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