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Food poisoning is a non-contagious disease that occurs after eating foods massively seeded with certain types of microorganisms or containing toxic substances of a microbial and non-microbial nature.
Food poisoning is the most extensive type of foodborne disease. When consuming foods massively seeded with microorganisms or containing their vital products (toxins), mass outbreaks of food poisoning and isolated cases are possible.
Classification of food poisoning. Etiology of food poisoning is divided into microbial, non-microbial and unknown etiology.
1. Microbial food poisoning is divided into 3 types:
1. Toxic infections - food poisoning that occurs when eating food containing massive amounts of living cells of a specific pathogen and their endotoxins released after the death of the pathogen and cell destruction.
2. Toxic infections cause conditionally pathogenic microorganisms - E. coli, bacteria of the genus Proteus, Bac.cereus, Cl.perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.
3. Toxicosis (intoxication) - food poisoning that occurs when eating food containing toxins that have accumulated as a result of the multiplication of a specific pathogen. In this case, living cells of the pathogen itself may be absent or detected in small quantities. Toxicosis is divided into 2 groups:
- bacterial toxicosis - staphylococcal toxicosis and botulism;
- mycotoxicoses - caused by mycotoxins of mold fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, etc.
Mixed - food poisoning of a mixed cause - poorly studied combinations of opportunistic microorganisms with each other, etc.
2. Non-microbial food poisoning - includes three subgroups: poisoning with products that are poisonous in nature; poisoning with products that are poisonous under certain conditions; poisoning with impurities of chemicals (heavy metals, pesticides, nitrates, dioxins. PAHs and other contaminants).
3. Food poisoning of unknown etiology - alimentary paroxysmal-toxic myoglobinuria (Gaff, Yuksovskaya, Sartland disease), caused by lake fish in some parts of the world in some years.
6.3.1. Microbial food poisoning
Microbial food poisoning has a number of significant differences from foodborne infections:
• food poisoning is caused by opportunistic microorganisms, and foodborne infections are definitely pathogenic microorganisms;
• for food poisoning, there is only a food route of transmission of pathogens, and for food infections, along with food, there are water, soil, contact-household, etc .;
• food poisoning is not transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person, i.e. they are not contagious (contagious);
• in food poisoning, pathogens reproduce extremely intensively in food products, and in food infections, they multiply, but not so intensively or do not multiply at all;
• food poisoning occurs when eating foods containing a large number of bacteria multiplied in them (105 - 106 or more per 1 g / ml), while foodborne infections can occur with a small amount of the pathogen in food;
• food poisoning has a short incubation period - on average from 20 minutes to 2-3 hours, while with food infections - from several days to several weeks;
• duration of food poisoning - on average 1-2 days, with food infections - from several days to several weeks;
• with food poisoning, there is an almost simultaneous disease of people who have consumed the same foods that are seeded with microorganisms;
• in case of food poisoning, there is a pronounced relationship between the disease and the use of food prepared or sold in conditions of sanitary violations;
• after an infected product is taken out of use, the outbreak of food poisoning quickly ceases;
• with food poisoning, immunity is not formed.
Food poisoning is usually the result of sanitary and technological violations in the manufacture, storage and sale of food products, leading to infection and propagation of pathogens in them.
The factors contributing to the occurrence of food poisoning of a microbial nature include:
• the presence of a source of infection - it can be a person (sick or healthy) and animals;
• availability of conditions for seeding of raw materials and finished products;
• finished products, unlike raw ones, often cause food poisoning due to a decrease in their level of antagonist microbes;
• a high degree of initial seeding of raw materials by microorganisms;
• insufficient efficiency of heat treatment of food products;
• a large amount of residual microflora in the finished food products after heat treatment;
• lack of effective re-heat treatment;
• the presence of favorable conditions for the propagation of microorganisms that cause food poisoning (favorable temperature, high humidity, pH 3.8-4.5, salt content less than 6-7%, sugar - less than 50%, etc.);
• the number of microbes accumulated in the product, more than 105 in 1 g / ml is considered dangerous;
• violation of temperature, shelf life and sale of food products;
• the absence of changes in the organoleptic properties of products with the accumulation of a large number of foodborne pathogens in them.
Prevention of food poisoning of microbial origin includes the following measures:
1. Improving the sources of infection is a big and complex problem, because it is connected with the health of people, farm animals, the maintenance of water bodies, etc. Its solution depends on many social and economic factors and requires the creation of a high sanitary-hygienic culture and product sales.
All employees of food enterprises must undergo a thorough medical examination upon entry to work, in the process and after breaks associated with diseases. Persons suffering from gastrointestinal diseases, having pustular skin diseases, nasopharynx (festering cuts, abrasions, scratches on hands, etc.) should not be allowed to work and are removed from it.
2. Prevention of the entry of infectious agents and their toxins into food products - a system of measures aimed at protecting food products from microbial contamination, which includes:
• sanitary and veterinary supervision of animals;
• sanitary monitoring of the state of health and morbidity of workers;
• compliance with personal hygiene rules by employees of enterprises;
• compliance with the conditions, terms of storage, transportation and sale of perishable products and prepared meals in accordance with applicable sanitary rules and norms;
• periodic disinfection, disinsection and disinfestation at enterprises.
3. Prevention of the possibility of accumulation of pathogens and their toxins in food. At catering establishments it is very important to observe the terms, storage temperature, as well as the terms for the sale of perishable and especially perishable products, ready meals. Only if the regimes are regulated by the current sanitary rules and norms, it is guaranteed that there is no possibility of reproduction and accumulation of pathogens in food, and therefore the safety of manufactured products for the health of consumers.
4. Destruction of pathogens of infections and their toxins in food. This is achieved mainly due to the heat treatment of food products, in which microbes die or their quantity sharply decreases (sterilization, pasteurization, cooking, etc.). In addition, it is necessary to create such conditions under which the causative agents of food poisoning can not multiply and accumulate in products. This is achieved due to the high concentration of sugar (in the cream of confectionery, jam, jam, etc.) or salt (when salting fish, meat, lard, etc.), creating acidity, as well as dehydrating the product to values at which microorganisms cannot multiply.
5. Hygienic training of workers at food enterprises - develops certain sanitary and hygienic skills among workers. Such training is one of the links in the overall complex of preventive measures.
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- Human food poisoning and their classification. Foodborne infections and their prevention
1 According to the international classification of diseases, food poisoning is allocated to a separate group of diseases. These include mainly acute diseases caused by the use of food massively seeded with microbes or containing toxic substances. According to the classification of food poisoning, adopted in 1981 and built according to the etiopathogenetic principle, food poisoning by
- FOOD INFECTIONS, FOOD POISONINGS AND GREASY DISEASES
FOOD INFECTIONS, FOOD POISONINGS AND GREASY
- Food poisoning.
Basic concepts. Classification of food poisoning. Food poisoning (intoxication) refers to acute illnesses arising from eating foods containing substances of a microbial and non-microbial nature that are poisonous to the body. Unlike intestinal infections, food poisoning occurs in people quickly and lasts several days, but in some cases they take on a very severe character and
- Non-microbial food poisoning
Food poisoning of a non-microbial etiology includes poisoning with products that are poisonous under certain conditions or poisonous in nature, as well as poisoning with impurities of chemicals. Food poisoning of non-microbial etiology accounts for approximately 5-10% of all food poisoning. In presenting this issue, the focus is on natural hazards,
- FOOD INFECTIONS AND FOOD POISONINGS
FOOD INFECTIONS AND FOOD
- Food poisoning
Food poisoning refers to acute illnesses arising from the use of food containing substances that are toxic to the body of a microbial and non-microbial nature. Unlike intestinal infections, food poisoning occurs quickly in humans and lasts for several days, but in some cases they take on a very severe character and can be fatal. Particularly sensitive to food
- Food poisoning and their prevention
Food poisoning refers to acute and, less commonly, chronic diseases caused by the use of poor-quality food, seeded with certain types of microorganisms or containing toxic substances. Alcohol intoxication, poisoning for the purpose of murder or suicide, food allergies, poisoning as a result of excess ingestion do not apply to food poisoning
- NON-MICROBIAL NATURE FOOD POISONINGS
Food poisoning of a non-microbial nature includes poisoning with plant products (mushrooms, poisonous plants, seeds of cereal crops), animal products (fish organs, bee honey) and poisoning with impurities to the product of toxic chemicals. Food poisoning of non-microbial origin is less common than poisoning of bacterial etiology, and makes up only 5-10%
- Food poisoning
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- Bacterial food poisoning
According to the international classification of diseases, food poisoning is allocated to a separate group of diseases. These include mainly acute diseases caused by the use of food massively seeded with microbes, or containing toxic substances. According to the classification of food poisoning, adopted in 1981, they are divided into 3 groups: 1) microbial, 2) non-microbial and 3)
- Food Poisoning Investigation
Food poisoning refers to diseases that occur as a result of eating food infected with certain types of microorganisms or containing toxic substances of an organic or inorganic nature. According to their origin, food poisoning is divided into three groups - microbial and non-microbial origin and unknown etiology. With microbial food poisoning
- Bacterial food poisoning
Foodborne infections of bacterial origin arise from eating foods containing live microbes or their poisons. Bacterial poisoning accounts for up to 90% of all food poisoning cases. They mainly occur in the summer, as the warm season contributes to the rapid multiplication of microbes in food. Poisoning caused by living bacteria that enter the body through food,
- FOOD POISONING CAUSED BY COCK MICROFLORA
This group of poisonings includes diseases caused by toxins produced by staphylococci or streptococci. HISTORICAL REFERENCE. For the first time, food poisoning caused by staphylococci was described by P.N. Laschenkov in 1901. He in 1899 in Kharkov studied the outbreak of food poisoning after eating a nut cake with cream and developed a scheme
- Chemical poisoning
This group of non-microbial food poisoning includes poisoning caused by pesticides, nitrites and other food additives when their content is high in food products, impurities transferred to products from equipment, inventory, containers, packaging films, etc. Poisoning with nitrites and other food additives when they are increased content in products Nitrite poisoning. With constant
- Food poisoning by bacteria of the genus Bacillus
The bacteria of the genus Bacillus, including 48 species, can cause a foodborne disease in humans, with the clinic and pathogenesis of poisoning, these are primarily species of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus. Despite the long history of studying the diseases caused by Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, we still feel the inferiority of our knowledge of the biology of these microorganisms. In this
- Foodborne poisoning of non-microbial origin
Poisoning in this group accounts for about 10% of the total number of poisonings. According to the classification, poisoning of non-microbial origin is divided into: 1. poisoning with products that are poisonous in nature - mushrooms, kernels of stone fruits, raw beans, and some types of fish; 2. poisoning with products temporarily poisonous - potatoes, fish during the spawning period; 3.
- Foodborne poisoning of non-microbial origin
Poisoning in this group accounts for about 10% of the total number of poisonings. According to the classification of non-microbial poisoning, they are divided into: 1) poisoning with products that are poisonous in nature - mushrooms, kernels of stone fruits, raw beans, and some types of fish; 2) poisoning with products temporarily poisonous - potatoes, fish during the spawning period; 3) poisoning by poisonous
- FOOD POISONING CAUSED BY BAC.CEREUS BACTERIA
Bacillus cereus bacteria can also cause human food poisoning. HISTORICAL REFERENCE. Since the mid-sixties, data have appeared in the literature on food poisoning caused by bacteria of the genus Baillus and, in particular, Bac. Cereus. Several cases of poisoning have been described, the cause of which was fried rice containing these bacteria. Cases of food outbreaks were later observed.
- Bacterial food poisoning
Among bacterial food poisoning, toxic infections are most widespread in all countries of the world. The name itself shows the dual nature of these pathological conditions, caused, on the one hand, by the massive penetration of infectious agents into the body, and on the other, by a complex of clinical phenomena typical of intoxication. The etiology of these poisonings is most often
- Non-microbial food poisoning and the main directions of their prevention
Non-microbial food poisoning occupies a small proportion among food poisoning. They account for no more than 1% of these diseases. However, non-microbial food poisoning is usually characterized by a severe course and high mortality, which in fact attracts the attention of health authorities. These groups of diseases are represented by poisoning by poisonous plants and