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Soil as an environmental factor. The role of soil in the transmission of epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases. Soil pollution and self-cleaning

The study of soil, its assessment of various indicators can conditionally be divided into 4 stages.

I. The Dopaster period (until 1852). The central point of this period is the localistic theory of Pettenkofer, who believed that all epidemics are closely linked to the mechanical composition of the soil, the content of carbon dioxide and the amount of organic substances.

Unaware of the causative agents of infectious diseases, he put forward some indirect indicators of the sanitary condition of the soil. The creation of a localistic theory caused a wave of recreational activities in all European countries. In Russia, the first works on the study of soil belong to A.P. Dobroslavin, who studied the soils of the St. Petersburg region.

II. The post-Pasteur period, which began with the discovery of Pasteur (1852) and spanned a century. The period is characterized by intensive study of the chemical composition of the soil, the study of all living things that were found in the soil. During this period, the doctrine of biogeochemical provinces arose and the epidemiological significance of the soil was finally studied.

III. The third period (1952-1972) is characterized by underestimation of the soil and the problems of its protection.

IV. The period (from 1972 to the present) is characterized by the study of soil as a factor that determines its paramount importance in the circulation of chemicals associated with emissions of industrial enterprises and vehicles. It was during this period that the rationing scheme for chemicals in soil was found justified.

The objects of hygienic study and assessment of the sanitary condition can be two types of soil.

Naturally formed soil outside populated areas, plots of which can be used for development and for other economic purposes.

II. Artificially formed soil of populated areas, mixed with human waste, its rational and unreasonable economic activity, which is combined under the term "Cultural soil layer of populated areas".

The subject of sanitary-hygienic assessment of the soil are:

1. Indicators of the chemical composition of the soil - the content in it of micro and macro elements, salts and their influence on changes in the chemical composition of food products and water.

2. The ability of the soil to self-cleaning.

3. The epidemiological role of the soil, characterized by:

a) the survival in the soil of pathogenic bacteria, spores and vegetative forms of bacilli and viruses;

b) the role of soil as an intermediate environment for the development of helminths;

c) the role of soil in the development of flies (from larva to a mature individual).

On February 19, 1991, the Law of the Russian Federation "On Environmental Protection" was adopted, in which the most important tasks are identified for the soil:

I. Protection of the natural properties of the soil, important from the point of view of its fertility and the content of biomicroelements.

II. Protection of the soil from the introduction of toxic, blastomogenic substances into it.

III.Preservation of soil from pollution by organic substances.

IV. Rules for the construction of artificial coatings and tilings.

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Soil as an environmental factor. The role of soil in the transmission of epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases. Soil pollution and self-cleaning

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