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Polymer materials intended for contact with food
Hygienic requirements for products made of polymeric materials. For polymeric materials in contact with food, along with such requirements as strength, economy, manufacturability, consumer acceptability, decorativeness, the possibility of disposal, etc., certain hygienic requirements are imposed. These requirements are set out in the "Instructions for the sanitary-chemical study of products made from polymeric to other synthetic materials intended for contact with food products. No. 880-71 ”, GOST R 50962-96“ Utensils and household products made of plastics ”and other documents of the Ministry of Health and the Sanitary Inspection of the Russian Federation.
Basic hygiene requirements for samples (products) of polymeric materials in contact with food:
• the test sample should not give into the air and model solutions that mimic food products, substances harmful to human health in quantities exceeding DCM (permissible amounts of migration), as well as compounds that can cause carcinogenic, mutagenic and other long-term effects;
• the surface of the sample should be clean, smooth without cracks, sagging, bumps and not sticky (the inner surface of the sample should have a light tone);
• the appearance of the sample should not change when exposed to model solutions, as well as in contact with food during trial operation;
• the sample should not change the organoleptic properties of model solutions after contact with them under appropriate conditions.
• each product is marked with the trademark of the manufacturer, the designation of the polymer material, the possibilities of its recycling, capacity and an indication of what types of food products they are used (cold, hot, bulk). Marking is allowed to indicate on the label or applique.
Products from plastics and film polymeric materials manufactured by any method of processing plastics must comply with hygienic quality indicators GOST R 50962-96 (with amendments from 12.25.2000 g), presented in table. 12 and 13.
Hygienic indicators of the quality of products from polymeric materials
If there is a smell above I point, taste, color change and transparency of model solutions, samples without further research are considered unsuitable for contact with food.
Permissible quantities of migration of harmful substances into model environments
Indicators of the migration of chemicals from polymer packaging materials into packaged water are regulated by SanPiN 126.96.36.1996-02 “Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for the quality of water packaged in containers. Quality control ”and are presented in table. 14.
Chemical Migration Estimates
in packaged water from polymer packaging materials
The direction and rules for receiving samples for laboratory research. For the study, life-size samples (if they are small) or their models with a capacity of not more than I liter are presented. The minimum number of samples is 5 copies, the packaging material is about 1 m2.
At the same time as samples provide the following information: manufacturer, release date, batch number, material name (model), brand, GOST, TU; compounding of the material with the full chemical name of the components; brief description of the technology; information about food products intended for contact with the sample; product operating conditions (contact time, temperature, ratio of the surface area of the product to the weight or volume of the food product, etc.); washing methods; test results of a production laboratory or interested organization for suitability and safety, etc.
The scheme of sanitary-chemical studies of products made from polymeric materials is presented in Fig. 1.
Conducting a sanitary-chemical study of polymeric materials. The study begins with an external examination of the sample, in which they note: the color on the outside and inside, the surface of the sample (smooth, rough, uneven, etc.), the smell of the sample.
If there is a smell with an intensity higher than I point, the sample is considered unsuitable for further research and application in the food industry.
After an external examination, the sample is washed with a piece of gauze in warm, tap, and then distilled water.
The study of products intended for contact with dry food products (with humidity up to 15%). These studies use the ability of food products to absorb volatiles; In addition, the determination of volatile substances released by the sample into the air is carried out. As the sorbent used bread, cookies, flour, butter, other food products, based on the operating conditions of the sample.
The study of the degree of migration of volatile chemical components into the air is carried out by placing samples in a hermetically sealed glass desiccator with a predetermined volume. The ratio of the surface area of the sample to the volume of air should be 1:30. Exposure time is 5 days.
The study of products intended for contact with food products having a humidity above 15%. The investigated sample of the product after appropriate washing is subjected to treatment with model solutions (table. 15).
The list of model solutions
used in the study of products made of synthetic materials
Processing with model solutions is carried out at a certain duration of contact (exposure), temperature conditions and taking into account the surface area of the sample.
If the test sample is not large in volume, then it is placed in a tightly closed glass container and filled with a model solution until it is completely immersed. If the sample is large, then model solutions are poured into it and tightly closed.
The results of the analysis are converted into mg / l indicating the area in contact with the model solution (cm2) and the amount of model solution taken for processing the product.
On the basis of the entire complex of data obtained during the study of the sample (organoleptic extracts from it, migration to the extract, the total amount of organic substances, individual ingredients, etc.), they conclude that it is suitable for contact with food products.
Modeling the duration of contact products
with model solutions
The duration of contact of products with model solutions is established depending on its operating conditions with some aggravation (exaggeration):
1. If the time of the alleged contact of the food product with the product:
• does not exceed 10 minutes, exposure during the study - 2 hours;
• does not exceed 2 hours, the exposure during the study - I day;
• from 2 to 48 hours, exposure - 3 days;
• over 2 days, exposure - 10 days;
2. The metal cans coated with varnish are filled with a model solution, hermetically closed, and autoclaved for 1 hour. and left at room temperature for 10 days;
3. Products intended for contact with food to be sterilized are filled with a model solution and autoclaved in a hermetically sealed form for 2 hours and left for 10 days. at room temperature.
Modeling temperature conditions in the study of products
• Products intended for contact with food at ambient temperature are poured with model solutions of room temperature and kept for the above time;
• products intended for contact with hot food (tableware, tea, coffee utensils) are poured with model solutions heated to 80 ° C and kept at room temperature for the above time;
• products and packaging materials intended for hot food packaging (ghee, processed cheese, etc.) are poured with model solutions with a temperature of 80 ° C and kept at room temperature for the above time;
• autoclaving is carried out at a temperature of 121 ° C;
molds for baking bread, ham, etc. pour boiling model solution, close the lid and boil for an hour.
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