home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Growth and development of the child. The main stages of the development of the body

Growth is an increase in the mass and linear dimensions of an organism, as well as its constituent organs, occurring due to an increase in the number and mass of cells, non-cellular formations, as a result of the predominance of anabolism over catabolism processes. Each organism has a genetically predetermined growth potential, but its implementation depends on how much the external environment favors this. The endocrine system, especially growth hormone (somatotropin) and thyroid derivatives, has a critical effect on human growth, with a lack of the anterior pituitary gland of the growth hormone being produced, dwarfism develops, and with excess, gigantism; a decrease in the production of thyroid-stimulating hormones leads to a slowdown in growth. Development is considered as a focused, continuously ongoing biological process, as a result of which cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and the body as a whole acquire new qualitative features. Growth and development are determined by internal causes (genotype) and external influences. The influence of environmental factors is already evident in the very early stages of fetal development.
Even a slight depletion of maternal blood with nutrients, oxygen leads to adaptive reactions of the fetus, expressed in the intensification of motor activity, growth rate and increase in the placenta.

Development is an ongoing process, however, each child goes through certain phases that are common to all — age periods. Each period is characterized by certain anatomical and physiological features, on the basis of which it is necessary to solve the problems of organizing care, nutrition, education, and carrying out activities for specific and non-specific prevention of the most common diseases. In the individual development of the body, two main stages are distinguished: prenatal (intrauterine) and postnatal (after birth). In the latter, in turn, there are three phases: growth, maturity and old age. Maturity is characterized by the complete development of body systems, and old age is an involutional process and is characterized by a decrease in body size, a gradual weakening of physiological functions, and damping of life processes.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Growth and development of the child. The main stages of the development of the body

  1. The main stages in the development of auditory function in a child
    The human auditory analyzer begins to function from the moment of its birth. Under the influence of sounds of sufficient volume in newborns, one can observe responses that proceed as unconditioned reflexes and manifest themselves in the form of changes in breathing and pulse, delayed sucking movements, etc. At the end of the first and the beginning of the second month of life, conditioned reflexes form on the child
  2. The main stages of development of the pronunciation side of speech in a child
    The first sounds of the child are screams, which are an unconditionally reflex reaction to the action of strong stimuli (external and internal), usually of a negative nature (cold, pain, hunger, etc.). These cries the child begins to publish immediately after birth into the world, and they serve as the basis for the subsequent development of sound-producing speech. Already in the first cries of the baby you can
  3. Mental development of the child and the biological factor of maturation of the body
    The pupil of S. Hall, the famous American psychologist A. Gesell (1880-1971) conducted a longitudinal study of the mental development of children from birth to adolescence using repeating slices1. He took significant steps to put the study of the problems of the development of young children on a scientific basis, to trace the development phases of the individual components of behavior from birth to
  4. BASIC STAGES OF OBSTETRICS DEVELOPMENT
    Obstetrics (French accoucher - help during childbirth) is a field of clinical medicine that studies the physiological and pathological processes occurring in a woman’s body associated with conception, pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, as well as developing methods for obstetric care, prevention and treatment of complications of pregnancy and childbirth diseases of the fetus and newborn. Origin
  5. BASIC STAGES OF OBSTETRICS DEVELOPMENT
    MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
  6. The main stages of the development of food hygiene
    The encyclopedic writings of Hippocrates (460–377 BC), Galen (about 130–200 years), Ibn Sipa (980–1037), and other scholars in ancient times generalized empirical medical knowledge, including and nutrition accumulated over many millennia. Hippocrates in his essay "On Diet" indicates the need to study the properties of nutrients used by humans, their effects on
  7. “Crises of disappointment” and the main stages of development of a professional psychologist
    Contrary to ordinary ideas, psychologists treat crises not only with “understanding”, but also with “respect”. The well-known statement of L. S. Vygotsky that “if there were no crises, they should have been invented on purpose, otherwise the development of the personality of a child cannot be explained in any way”, refers not only to age psychology, but also to psychologists of becoming a professional. At the same time crises
  8. The definition of psychological work and the main stages of its development
    Psychological work is an activity carried out in peacetime and wartime by commanders, officers of educational institutions, psychologists and specially created structures (units). It is aimed at studying, forming and developing the psychological qualities of military personnel, maintaining the mental states necessary for the successful conduct of hostilities,
  9. The main stages in the development of psychology as a science
    {foto6} {foto7} Source: Zhdan A.N. The history of psychology from antiquity to modernity: Textbook for universities. - 4th rev., M.-Yekaterinburg, 2002,
  10. The definition of psychological work and the main stages of its development in the Armed Forces of Russia
    Psychological work in the Armed Forces is an activity conducted in peacetime and wartime by officials of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - psychologists, commanders, officers of educational institutions, aimed at the formation and development of the psychological qualities necessary for successful combat operations in military personnel, the performance of official and combat training missions as well as
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com