Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for water supply of food facilities
Water supply of food facilities can be carried out by various systems.
The local water supply system is the construction of mine and tubular wells, mainly in rural areas. The sources of water for this system are groundwater, which is used without prior treatment. The hygienic characteristics of the wells depend on the depth of the aquifer and measures to protect water from possible pollution. Tubular wells (shallow, artesian) to a greater extent meet hygienic requirements than mine, because their design more reliably provides isolation of water from surface contaminants.
In the absence of a centralized water supply, a local water supply system is installed, which is fed from a deep mine or artesian well. The mine well is located at a distance of not less than 20 m from industrial premises and not less than 100-150 m from possible sources of pollution. The blockhouse of the well is raised above the ground by at least 0.6 m and tightly closed with a lid. Around the log house they arrange a “clay castle” with a width of at least 1 m and a depth of 2 m. Near the well, paved slopes with a slope of 0.1 m and a width of 2 m are arranged.
A centralized water supply system is a central water supply system that provides for the purification and disinfection of water at waterworks before it enters the water pipes. As a rule, the source of water supply for the installation of water supply systems is open water bodies, and in small settlements - underground waters.
To prevent pollution of water intake sites and waterworks around them establish a sanitary protection zone.
The sanitary protection zone is understood as the territory in which a special regime is established and measures are taken to prevent periodically occurring or systematic pollution that may impair water quality. The entire sanitary protection zone is divided into two zones: the first belt is a strict regime zone, designed to protect the water intake site and the main water supply facilities. It is fenced and guarded, it is forbidden to stay and construction. The second belt is a restriction zone, establishing a restrictive regime according to which construction is allowed only by agreement with the sanitary authorities.
In order to protect the water supply network from pollution, it is impermeable to pipes, insulation of their joints, manholes, etc. Installation of water pipes should be carried out below the level of soil freezing. When crossing the drinking water supply lines with sewage collectors, the former should be located above the latter at a distance of not less than 0.4 m. If the intersection occurs at a shorter distance and the water supply is laid below the sewage level, then steel pipes instead of cast iron are used for the water supply, and for sewage - cast iron instead of ceramic. At the intersection, the water pipes are protected by a special case in clay soil - at least 5 m long in each direction, in the filtering soil - 10 m.
Water supply of public catering facilities.
Catering enterprises, regardless of ownership, capacity, location, are equipped with internal water supply systems. Water supply is carried out by connecting to a centralized water supply system, and in its absence, an internal water supply system with water intake from an artesian well, a well is equipped. Sanitary and epidemiological conclusion is necessary for water supply sources of newly built, reconstructed and existing organizations.
The amount of water should fully meet the needs of the enterprise. The following water consumption rates are provided for the preparation of 1 ton of semi-finished foods in public catering: meat - 1,500 l, fish and vegetable - 2,200 l, culinary - 1000 l. Estimated second water consumption and the percentage of simultaneous equipment are presented in table. 9.
Estimated Secondary Water Consumption
and percentage of simultaneous operation of equipment
The quality of the water used at public catering facilities must comply with the hygienic requirements for potable water.
In case of any accident in the water supply network, it is forbidden to use the water in the water supply during repair work. After repair, the water supply network should be disinfected, and water should be taken for bacteriological analysis.
In addition to cold water, catering facilities should be provided with hot water of appropriate quality.
According to the method of power supply from the cold water supply network, open and closed hot water supply systems are distinguished, which are arranged with the upper and lower wiring. For hygienic reasons, it is preferable that the lower wiring device in the underground channel or under the ceiling of the basement.
Hot water is supplied to washing machines and bathtubs, production sinks, showers, washbasins, watering taps for washing treatment plants (grease traps, dirt traps and mezzanine collectors), as well as to a waste chamber for washing tanks. The minimum temperature of hot water should not be lower than 65 ° C; special local heating devices are provided for obtaining a higher water temperature.
All production halls should be equipped with sinks with hot and cold water. At the same time, faucets are designed to prevent hand contamination.
If necessary, a steam supply system is equipped at food enterprises for the disinfection of equipment, containers, flasks, etc.
In cases where the amount of drinking water is limited, a separate water supply network for technical needs is allowed, which should be completely isolated from drinking water supply. In such cases, it is allowed to supply refrigeration units, vacuum pumps, barometric condensers, heating devices, etc. with technical water. It is forbidden to use hot water from the water heating system for technological, household purposes, as well as for the processing of technological equipment, containers, inventory and premises .
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for water supply of food facilities
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the improvement of food facilities
Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for food improvement
- Monitoring compliance with general sanitary requirements for food facilities
General principles for the placement and improvement of a food object. A land plot, sanitary improvement of industrial premises, equipment and the manufacturing process of a food enterprise must comply with hygienic requirements and standards: “Planning, development of cities, towns and rural settlements” (SNiP P-60-75), “Norms and specifications
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for sewerage and solid waste disposal in food enterprises
Sanitary technical measures for the collection, disposal, neutralization and disposal of waste are called sanitary treatment. Waste is divided into liquid and solid. Liquid waste - wastewater (domestic, industrial, storm, agricultural, etc.). Solid waste - construction waste, street estimates, wastes from catering, industrial and commercial enterprises, slags from boiler houses, etc.
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for public catering establishments
The production of high-quality products at public catering enterprises and the health status of consumers largely depend on compliance with the requirements of the sanitary and epidemiological rules of SP 188.8.131.529-01 “Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for public catering organizations, the manufacture and turnover of food products and food raw materials in them”. Quality and
- Sanitary regime of food objects
The sanitary maintenance of enterprises must comply with the Sanitary Rules approved by the Ministry of Health. So, for public catering enterprises, SP 184.108.40.2069-01 “Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for public catering organizations, the manufacture and turnover of food products and food raw materials in them” should be guided. As noted
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the design of EPP
The production of high-quality products at EPP and the health status of the population served depend on many factors, including the rational design of the enterprise. When designing and reconstructing EPP, it is necessary to ensure the most important hygiene tasks: • compliance with the set of premises and the area and capacity of the enterprise; • rational organization of labor;
- Sanitary requirements for the territory, water supply and sewage
The choice of land for the construction or reconstruction of enterprises should be agreed with the bodies of the Sanitary Inspection and other organizations in the prescribed manner. The territory of the courtyard must be fenced, lit, kept in proper cleanliness. The yard should be cleaned daily, in winter it should be cleaned of snow and ice, and during sanding it should be sprinkled with sand. In the territory
- Sanitary requirements for food manufacturing enterprises
Food production enterprises include meat, dairy, bakery, and confectionery industries, as well as food and taste production (tea factories, etc.), livestock complexes, dairy farms, and poultry farms. When conducting ongoing sanitary inspection, it is recommended to inspect the enterprise along the process (specific,
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the planning and arrangement of premises
Space-planning and design solutions of premises should provide for the sequence (flow) of technological processes that exclude oncoming flows: • raw materials, raw semi-finished products and finished products; • used and clean dishes; • oncoming traffic of visitors and staff; • finished products and food waste. Recruitment and floor space should
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the location, territory and master plan of the site
Placement of EPP and the provision of land is allowed in the presence of a sanitary-epidemiological conclusion on their compliance with sanitary rules and norms. POP can be located both as a separate building, and annexed, built-in attached to residential and public buildings in non-residential floors of residential buildings, in public buildings, as well as in industrial and other
- SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF FOOD
Compliance with sanitary requirements during transportation, reception, storage, mechanical culinary and heat treatment of food products, as well as at the stage of storage and sale of finished food contributes to the preservation of the nutritional value of products, prevention of contamination of food products and prepared food with bacteria (including pathogenic ones), prevention food poisoning and intestinal infections.