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Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the location, territory and master plan of the site
Placement of EPP and the provision of land is allowed in the presence of a sanitary-epidemiological conclusion on their compliance with sanitary rules and norms.
POP can be located both as a separate building, and annexed, built-in attached to residential and public buildings in the non-residential floors of residential buildings, in public buildings, as well as on the territory of industrial and other facilities for servicing working personnel. At the same time, living conditions, recreation, treatment and work of people should not worsen.
In non-residential premises of residential buildings (except dormitories) it is allowed to place organizations with a total area of not more than 700 m2 with the number of seats not more than 50.
The master plan is a large-scale plan for the location of all buildings of the enterprise, utility structures and devices, green spaces, roads, fences, main highways, water supply, sewage, heating and gas networks, power lines. In addition, the general plan indicates the orientation of the buildings relative to the cardinal points, the "wind rose" and gives an explication of buildings and structures.
The master plan should provide:
• environmental protection from industrial hazards;
• compliance with normative indicators of building density and landscaping;
• proper sanitary conditions for consumers and staff;
• favorable microclimate at the enterprise;
• quality and safety of finished products.
The site for construction should be selected taking into account the mechanical properties of the soil - porosity, drying intensity, degree of aeration, etc. Coarse-grained soil, which is characterized by active processes of aerobic self-cleaning, is most favorable for the site.
The relief of the site should be smooth, favorable for the discharge of storm and flood waters. If the natural topography does not provide a drain, then a drainage device is provided.
Of great sanitary importance is the height of the groundwater in the area. The level of standing water in the ground should not be higher than 1 m from the floor of the basement or first floor.
The building site should be removed from sources of possible pollution. So, for food preparation factories, a class 5 sanitary protection zone with a size of at least 100 m has been installed (SanPiN 2.2.1 / 18.104.22.1687-96).
When placing POP, it is necessary to consider the “wind rose”. On the windward side, the site is located in relation to industrial facilities, public utilities, etc., and on the leeward side - in relation to child care facilities, medical institutions (except for infectious diseases hospitals), etc.
Of great hygienic importance is the orientation of the building in relation to the cardinal points. Production facilities and refrigerated chambers should be facing north and northeast, dining rooms and staff rooms to the south and southeast.
The territory of the enterprise must be landscaped.
With its improvement, the placement of premises, landscaping, the organization of access roads and unloading areas, pedestrian walkways, as well as the isolation and rational organization of the economic zone are hygienic.
Of great hygienic importance is the degree of development of the site. It is desirable that the area of enterprises occupy no more than 30-40% of the entire site (for better aeration of the territory and the building).
In the design and construction of POP, the formation of a courtyard enclosed by buildings should be avoided. Between buildings there should be a distance equal to the height (to the cornice) of the tallest building, standing opposite (for better lighting and ventilation of the premises).
The territory of the enterprise is fenced with greenery whenever possible.
The household part of the yard and pedestrian traffic should be separate.
The territory of the enterprise must be asphalted or paved, especially that part of it that adjoins production and storage facilities. The non-paved and non-paved part of the territory should be landscaped. Landscaped area should be at least 50% of the total built-up area.
On the territory of organizations, it is recommended to provide sites for temporary parking of personnel and visitors. Sites should be located on the side of the carriageway of roads and not be located in the courtyards of residential buildings.
Organizations located in residential buildings should have entrances and emergency exits isolated from the residential part of the building.
The loading of products must be carried out from the ends of residential buildings that do not have windows. Acceptance of food raw materials and food products from the residential building, where the windows and entrances to the apartments are located, is not carried out.
Garbage collection sites are located at a distance of at least 25 m from residential buildings, playgrounds for games and recreation.
In premises located in residential buildings and buildings for other purposes, POP household and industrial sewage networks are not combined with the fecal sewage systems of these buildings.
The internal sewage system of industrial and domestic wastewater should be separate with independent releases into the on-site sewage network.
Water supply is carried out by connecting to a centralized water supply system; in its absence, an internal water supply system is installed with a water intake from an artesian well, wells, and drains.
The bodies and institutions of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service issue a sanitary and epidemiological opinion on the water sources of newly built, reconstructed and existing organizations.
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Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the location, territory and master plan of the site
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In the sanitary-hygienic assessment of the site allocated for construction, attention is drawn to the size of the sanitary protection zone, the size of the site, the nature of the relief of the construction site, hydrogeological indicators, the nature of the soil, the depth of groundwater, the directions of the prevailing winds, etc. Sanitary protection zones are set in in accordance with SanPiN 2.2.1 / 22.214.171.1247-96
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- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the improvement of food facilities
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