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Sanitary and epidemiological assessment of soil quality
Sanitary assessment of soil is guided by SanPiN 126.96.36.1997-03 "Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for soil quality", MU 188.8.131.520-99 "Hygienic assessment of soil quality of populated areas". Sanitary rules establish requirements for the quality of soil in populated areas, and compliance with hygiene standards when placing, designing, constructing, reconstructing the operation of facilities for various purposes. These rules are binding on all legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, regardless of ownership.
Hygienic assessment of the soil is carried out in order to determine its quality and degree of safety for humans, as well as the development of measures to reduce chemical and biological pollution.
Sanitary assessment of soil quality includes sanitary-chemical, toxicological, bacteriological, parasitological, entomological and radiometric studies.
The degree of chemical pollution is determined depending on the priority of the pollution components in accordance with the list of MPC of chemical substances in the soil and their hazard class (Table 7).
The rationale for the MPC of chemicals in the soil is based on 4 main indicators of harmfulness:
• translocation - the transition of a substance into a plant;
• migratory water - the transfer of matter from soil to groundwater and water sources;
• migratory air - the transfer of matter from soil to atmospheric air;
• general sanitary - the effect of a pollutant on the self-cleaning ability of the soil.
According to the degree of danger in the sanitary-epidemiological relation, the soils are divided: clean, acceptable, moderately dangerous, dangerous and extremely dangerous. An assessment of the degree of chemical pollution of the soil is presented in Appendix 3.
Hazard classes of chemical pollutants
One important indicator of soil contamination is the sanitary number (Khlebnikov number), which is the ratio of humus nitrogen to total organic nitrogen (mg / 100 g).
The sanitary number allows you to evaluate the self-cleaning ability of the soil. With self-cleaning, the amount of humus nitrogen increases and in clean soil the sanitary number approaches 1. The lower the sanitary number, the dirtier the soil.
The degree of epidemic danger of the soil is judged by the following indicators:
1. Sanitary and bacteriological indicators:
• indirect indicators - sanitary-indicative microorganisms of the group of Escherichia coli (index BGKP) and fecal streptococci (index enterococci);
• direct indicators - detection of pathogens of intestinal infections, incl. salmonella.
2. Sanitary and parasitological indicators - the detection of eggs of geogelmins (roundworm, whipworms, etc.).
3. Sanitary and entomological indicators - larvae and pupae of synanthropic flies.
Indicators of the epidemic hazard of the soil are presented in table. 8.
Soil quality control can be carried out according to an abbreviated, standard or extended list of indicators depending on the stage of design and construction of the facility, as well as taking into account its danger.
The standard list of chemical indicators includes the determination of the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, nickel, arsenic, mercury), 3,4-benz (a) pyrene, pH, total indicator (metal complex) and sanitary number.
Monitoring of soil conditions is carried out in residential areas and in high-risk areas (highways, around landfills for waste disposal, etc.).
Assessment of the degree of epidemiological hazard of the soil
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Sanitary and epidemiological assessment of soil quality
- General assessment of the sanitary-epidemiological state of public catering enterprises
The overall assessment of the sanitary-epidemiological state is scored by 5 main factors of the sanitary-epidemiological risk of food poisoning and infectious diseases (Table 17). The condition of the catering enterprise is evaluated in points: • subject to all sanitary and hygienic rules - 100 points; • satisfactory condition of the enterprise - 91-100
- Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of catering projects
Purpose: to get acquainted with the sanitary and epidemiological expertise of catering projects. Work content: 1. Consider and give a sanitary and epidemiological assessment: the type of the enterprise; territory and master plan of the site; building layout; the recruitment and placement of commercial, industrial, warehouse, administrative and technical premises; accommodation
- The history of the development of sanitary protection of the soil. Indicators characterizing the basic properties of the soil, their hygienic value
In the history of hygiene, the most ancient preventive measures to protect human health were measures aimed at the sanitary protection of the soil. At that time, people walked barefoot, slept on the ground or in earthen shelters, breathed soil air, drank ground water, and finally ate foods grown on the soil. The problem of the effect of soil on human health has interested mankind with
- Instruction on the procedure for the implementation by bodies and institutions of the sanitary-epidemiological service of the state sanitary supervision of the sanitary condition of health facilities
(Approved by Order of the USSR M3 of March 23, 76 No. 228) In accordance with the Regulation on State Sanitary Inspection in the USSR, approved by Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated May 31, 73 No. 361, the sanitary and epidemiological service is entrusted with the supervision of sanitary and epidemiological control events and compliance by institutions and institution managers
- Self-cleaning of the soil and sanitary protection of the soil
Self-cleaning of the soil is a transformation aimed at restoring the original state of the soil. Self-cleaning is of great hygiene and epidemiological importance. Soil is a natural environment for waste disposal. It detoxifies (neutralizes, destroys, turns into non-toxic compounds) the bulk of incoming exogenous organic
- Epidemiological significance of the soil
The soil is of great epidemiological importance. The causative agents of many infectious and parasitic diseases can be located and transmitted to humans by direct contact and indirect means. The transmission factors of pathogens are: dust, soil contaminated hands, food products (vegetables, fruits, berries, leafy greens, mushrooms, etc.), water, equipment, implements, dishes, containers, etc.
- Epidemiological significance of the soil
As already mentioned, soil is a natural receiver of solid and liquid wastes of human and animal life, in which pathogens of various diseases can be. Fortunately, most pathogens caught in clean, unpolluted soil die more or less quickly. In soil contaminated with organic substances, they are able to preserve
- State sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of soil and cleaning of settlements
Sanitary protection of the soil provides for: measures to prevent its pollution by household and industrial solid and liquid wastes, mineral fertilizers, pesticides and other exogenous chemicals; supervision of the correct structure, maintenance and operation of facilities for the disposal, elimination and disposal of waste; safe use controls
- SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SUPERVISION AND SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL LEGISLATION
An effective and efficient system of state regulation and control of food quality and safety has developed in Russia, which is based on an integrated approach to products, assessment and regulation of food quality at all stages of its production, processing, storage, transportation and sale. This system includes bodies of state supervision and control:
- Indicators of the sanitary state of the soil and their hygienic value
The sanitary state of the soil is a combination of its physical, physico-chemical and biological properties that determine the safety of the soil in an epidemic and chemical sense. Assessment of the sanitary state of the soil, its level of pollution and the degree of danger to human health is based on the results of laboratory tests: sanitary-physical, sanitary-chemical, physical-chemical,
- Sanitary Soil Protection
Sanitary protection of the soil of populated areas is a set of measures aimed at preventing and eliminating such changes in the composition and properties of the soil that can have a harmful effect on the health and well-being of people. The Federal Law "On the Sanitary and Epidemiological Well-Being of the Population" (1999) regulates the requirements for soils, maintenance of territories of populated areas and
- Soil Sanitation Activities
Peculiarities of sources of soil pollution, their qualitative and quantitative characteristics determine the tactics of the sanitary doctor when carrying out measures for the sanitary protection of the soil. Sanitary protection of the soil is a set of measures (organizational, legislative, technological, hygienic or scientific, sanitary, sanitary, planning, land management,
- State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance
State sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of the Russian Federation is a system of bodies and institutions that ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population. Sanitary and epidemic well-being - a set of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic measures aimed at preventing and eliminating environmental pollution, and improving
- Sanitary and epidemiological examination of public catering establishments
Purpose of the lesson: To get acquainted with the methodology of the sanitary-epidemiological examination of public catering enterprises. Work content: 1. Acquaintance with the goals and objectives of the sanitary-epidemiological survey of public catering enterprises. 2. Preparation for the examination. 3. The main issues to be studied in the survey of catering.
- Sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population
Sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population is ensured by a set of organizational, legal and economic measures in accordance with the Federal Law "On Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare of the Population" dated March 30, 1999 No. 52-FZ, which uses the following concepts: sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population - state public health, human environment,
- The main goals and objectives of the sanitary-epidemiological survey of public catering establishments
The EPP survey is an important section of the work of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance and other regulatory organizations. The main purpose of the survey is to identify potential sanitary and epidemiological violations that could adversely affect the quality of products and the health status of consumers and staff. The main tasks of the sanitary-epidemiological