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Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the planning and arrangement of premises
Space-planning and design solutions of premises should provide for the sequence (flow) of technological processes that exclude oncoming flows:
• raw materials, raw semi-finished products and finished products;
• used and clean dishes;
• oncoming traffic of visitors and staff;
• finished products and food waste.
The set and area of the premises should correspond to the capacity of the organization and ensure compliance with sanitary rules and norms.
The room for consumers. This group of premises includes: trading halls with distributing rooms, a buffet, a lobby, a culinary store, diet rooms, banquet rooms, an entrance hall, boxes, cabins, stage, etc.
The layout of trade enterprises depends on the purpose of the enterprise and the forms of customer service. In enterprises operating in a self-service system, salesrooms must be directly adjacent to the premises of the hot and cold shops.
Distribution compartments are installed at medium and high-capacity enterprises between the trading floor, hot and cold shops, and bread slicers. The area of the hall is determined by the number of seats and the purpose of the enterprise.
Placing equipment in sales areas has a great impact on the organization of customer service. Distribution and buffet counters, cash desks should be located in a trading floor in such a way as to avoid oncoming flows of consumers and service personnel. Of great importance when planning is the width of the aisles in the trading floors. It depends on the type of POP, the configuration of the hall, etc. The width of the main passages should be 1.2-1.5 m. Additional passages for the distribution of the flow of visitors are provided in canteens and restaurants 0.9-1.2 m wide.
The distance between the dispensing line and the barrier is taken equal to 0.7-0.8 m.
The number of seats in the dressing room is projected 10 more seats in the hall.
At least two toilet rooms are equipped in the lobby at the rate of one toilet for 60 seats in the hall, washbasins with hot and cold water are installed in the locks.
Combining toilets for visitors and staff is not allowed. In enterprises with more than 100 places, additional washbasins are installed (one wash basin for every 50 places).
The room for the vacation of meals at home should be separate, but directly connected with the kitchen, it must have: a washbasin with hot and cold water, food warmers, a refrigerator.
The culinary store is designed, as a rule, with a separate entrance. It is equipped with refrigerated cabinets and display cabinets.
Industrial premises. Since cold and heat treatment of food products takes place in industrial premises, the layout of these premises should be carried out taking into account sanitary and hygienic requirements that exclude the possibility of the occurrence and spread of food infections and food poisoning.
Production facilities should be located in aboveground floors, which ensures their best lighting and ventilation. The layout of the premises should ensure the accuracy of production processes in the shortest path of the passage of raw materials from the moment of its receipt to the release of finished products. The flow of raw materials with semi-finished products and finished products, used dishes with clean ones must not be allowed to cross. These sanitary requirements can be met only with a vertical layout of production and storage facilities (on the ground floor - production, in the basement or basement - storage). In this case, the raw material passes the shortest path (with the help of a lift) and is minimally contaminated during transportation. Vegetable shop should be located closer to the lift and exit, as it receives the most contaminated raw materials.
The layout of the cold shop should be subject to high sanitary requirements, since the dishes it produces are prepared from products that are not cooked (salads from fresh cucumbers, tomatoes, radishes, etc.) or have already passed it (salads, vinaigrettes, jellied, sweet dishes) .
The cold shop must be positioned in such a way that it is easy to communicate with the hot shop, with the procurement workshops, and with the storage rooms of the washing tableware. At the same time, the cold shop should be located in a complex with premises associated with the sale of ready-made dishes, with a distribution and trading room. In order to avoid an increase in temperature in a cold shop, it should be completely fenced off from the hot shop and trading floor.
To exclude the possibility of increasing temperature and humidity in the premises, the hot shop and kitchen should not be placed under the billet and cold shops, the dining room.
If the catering facility is located in a residential building, then ceiling ceilings are designed to prevent odors, as well as moist and hot air, from penetrating the upper floors. In addition, self-ventilation should be equipped at POP.
It is forbidden to place production facilities under the shower, bathtub, toilet, as If sewage is clogged, sewage can penetrate into them.
The handout should be directly connected to the kitchen, trading floor, washing dishes and bread slicer.
In harvesting workshops (vegetable, meat and fish), where the area of each workshop is 20 m2, it is advisable to separate the places for washing and cleaning vegetables (in the vegetable workshop) with a glass partition 1.7-1.8 m high, for the primary processing of meat and poultry (in the meat shop).
In pre-prepared dining rooms, the cooking process for culinary products is usually carried out in one room, without dividing it into separate workshops. In such rooms, it is necessary to provide good ventilation (air conditioning) and adequate lighting.
Processing of meat, fish and vegetable semi-finished products should be carried out separately (separate production lines using separate equipment), while it is advisable to mechanize all technological processes as much as possible.
Production facilities should be isolated from the administrative.
If the designed enterprise is located on two floors, then the trading floor, production shops and washing departments should be on the ground floor in close proximity to each other.
Of great hygienic importance when planning rooms is their orientation in relation to the cardinal points. In the workshop for the preparation of cold dishes and snacks, confectionery shops, where cream is prepared and cakes and pastries are decorated, a north-west orientation and protection against insolation are provided.
Warehouses. Warehouses are grouped around the unloading. A separate refrigerated unit is provided for storing perishable products, and separate pantries for storing dry foods and vegetables. Above the storage facilities located in the basement or semi-basement floors, washing departments and sanitary units do not have.
The number and size of storage facilities depend on the capacity of the enterprise.
Pantries for dry products are located in dry, well-ventilated rooms.
For storage of bread, it is advisable to provide a special room and a bread slicer.
Perishable products are stored in refrigerators, where separate storage is provided: meat, fish, milk and dairy products; greens and fruits; gastronomy and finished culinary products.
Cooled chambers should have independent supply and exhaust ventilation, not related to ventilation of other rooms.
Refrigeration units must be mounted on a vibration isolating base (to reduce noise and vibration).
For unpacking and inspection of products in the chambers, a receiving and unloading platform is provided.
In the vegetable warehouse, in order to avoid contamination of the receiving and unloading area with potatoes and vegetables, a loading hatch should be provided, covered with a visor from atmospheric precipitation.
In the block of refrigerated spaces provide a chamber for storing food waste with a separate entrance. The chamber should conveniently communicate with the premises of the washing utensils.
Service and domestic premises. Office space includes offices, directorates, bookkeeping, marketing services, etc. They should be located in the elevated floor.
Domestic facilities include dressing rooms for home and sanitary clothes, linen, showers, sanitary facilities, rooms for staff. They can be located both in the basement and on the ground floor of the building close to the stairwell.
It is advisable to design the premises of the office and the directorate closer to the stairwell and the service entrance so that unauthorized persons can not enter the production premises.
It is recommended to arrange household premises (dressing rooms, showers, bathrooms) for service personnel in a single unit, isolated from the production premises of the enterprise.
The staff room is intended for meals by the employees of the enterprise, so it should be located in the group of production rooms, closer to the hot shop and washing dishes.
The number of domestic premises and their sizes depend on the number of places for visitors to this enterprise.
Dressing rooms for staff design separately for men and women. Personal and sanitary clothing should be stored in cabinets with two compartments. Large enterprises provide for separate storage of personal clothing and sanitary clothing, as well as walk-in showers with a dressing room and dressing room.
It is advisable to design toilets on each floor or across the floor with locks in which washbasins and hangers for sanitary clothing are installed. The distance from the workplace to the toilet should not exceed 75 m.
A separate faucet with a mixer at the level of 0.5 m from the floor for the intake of water intended for mopping, as well as a drain ladder with a slope to it, is provided in the vestibule of the staff toilet.
The office premises at large procurement enterprises include a sanitary laboratory. It consists of a sample reception room, a laboratory, a chemical-technological and bacteriological department, and a head office. The area of the laboratory premises is 8-10 m2 per 1 ton of processed raw materials.
The chemical-technological department includes a room for physico-chemical analyzes with a fume hood, a washing, weighing room, a pantry for storing reagents, utensils, etc. Utility rooms can be combined subject to separation of washing lines, storage of utensils and reagents.
In the bacteriological department there is a room for bacteriological research, a box for sowing, an autoclave, a washing and a medium cooker.
Technical buildings. This is a special group of premises, which may not always be located as a single unit. These rooms are designed in the basement and basement floors, as well as on various floors of the POP. They should have convenient access and independent entrances from production corridors or the economic zone of the enterprise.
The engine room of refrigerators is located next to the refrigerators. Small enterprises do not provide for an engine room. Refrigeration units must not be installed on stairs and under stairs, at entrance doors, in the lobby, in the elevator engine room.
Ventilation chambers and a heat point are located at the outer walls of buildings.
The switchboard is designed at the exterior walls of buildings and in close proximity to production facilities. It is forbidden to place them under the washing, shower and other rooms where there are sewer drains and sinks.
The air conditioning chamber is located next to the heating station and in convenient connection with the refrigeration unit.
In the group of technical premises of enterprises with the number of seats no more than 150, a room for a mechanic mechanic with an area of 6 m2 is provided.
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Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the planning and arrangement of premises
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