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Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for sewerage and solid waste disposal in food enterprises
Sanitary technical measures for the collection, disposal, neutralization and disposal of waste are called sanitary treatment.
Waste is divided into liquid and solid. Liquid waste - wastewater (domestic, industrial, storm, agricultural, etc.). Solid waste - construction waste, street estimates, waste from food services, industrial and commercial enterprises, slag from boiler houses, etc.
There are 3 waste disposal systems: alloy (sewage), export, mixed.
Liquid waste - enter the sewer. Sewerage - a system of facilities that receives, transports wastewater through a network of pipelines outside the village to the sewer basins, from which wastewater is discharged to sewage treatment plants by collectors. In the absence of sewage, export is carried out by tank trucks to the drain stations.
Stages of wastewater treatment:
1. Mechanical cleaning. Efficiency reaches up to 50%. For cleaning, grates are used to trap large debris; sand traps for settling heavy particles; sedimentation tanks for sedimentation of undissolved suspended solids.
2. Biological treatment - provides the decay and mineralization of organic substances. To do this, use filtering fields, irrigation fields, biofilters (crushed stone, slag), biological ponds and aeration tanks (in which a mixture of wastewater and activated sludge flows).
3. Wastewater disinfection. Use bleach. Neutralization of sludge (sludge) is carried out in digesters with the formation of methane gas. Efficiency is evaluated by the coli index (not more than 1000) and residual chlorine (not less than 1-1.5 mg / l).
The question of how to treat wastewater from food enterprises and the complex of necessary treatment facilities in each case is decided taking into account the quantity, chemical composition and sanitary-epidemiological significance of wastewater. When using the central sewage system, sewage treatment is carried out in the central sewage system. However, before discharge into the sewage system, wastewater, as a rule, is subjected to partial treatment (by sand traps, grease traps, etc.).
So, for the correct disposal of wastewater from a meat-packing plant, four sewerage networks are provided: the first - for the removal of relatively clean water from boiler, refrigeration, and pump installations; the second - for industrial waters from fatty, sausage, offal and other workshops (before discharge into the network, drains are freed from fat by passing through special grease traps); the third - for the disposal of fecal and non-fat industrial waters; the fourth - to remove infected and especially contaminated waters coming from the quarantine department, the isolation ward, the slaughterhouse and the raw materials department of the feed and technical products workshop. Such water must be decontaminated before being discharged into the general network.
If it is impossible to centrally sewer small individual facilities for wastewater treatment, small sewage facilities are organized that can receive and process from 25 to 1000 m3 of wastewater per day. These structures are located outside a small settlement or a separate object and can be represented by sedimentation tanks with fermented sludge, small filtering fields without drainage, irrigation fields, various biofilters. For the purpose of disinfecting sewage sludge in small sewage schemes, special design sumps are used that combine the processes of sedimentation of sewage and sludge digestion. The most common septic tanks and two-tier sedimentation tanks.
Solid waste is collected using waste chutes, stationary waste bins and removable containers. For waste disposal, special garbage trucks are used. A promising method is the use of special pipelines - pneumatic waste disposal.
All waste must be treated in order to prevent the spread of infections. Methods of neutralization should be epidemiologically safe, ensure the rapid neutralization of waste, prevent the development of larvae of flies and create a favorable environment for the development of rodents, quickly turn organic substances into safe compounds that do not decay and do not pollute the air, protect underground and surface waters from pollution. If possible, use the beneficial quality of the waste.
Waste is divided into recyclable (not destroyed and used as biofuels, fertilizers, etc.) and non-recyclable (necessarily destroyed).
The methods of disposal by technology are divided:
• biothermal (composting, landfill, landfill and irrigation fields);
• thermal (waste incineration in special furnaces at a temperature of 1000-1200 ° С; pyrolysis to produce combustible gas and oil-like oils at a temperature of 1640 ° С);
• chemical (hydrochloric or sulfuric acid at high temperature in order to obtain ethyl alcohol);
• mechanical (pressing into building blocks).
The most widely used are biothermal and thermal methods. The best is the biothermal method, which is often used in the form of composting. Due to the vital activity of thermophilic microorganisms, biochemical processes occur in compost at a temperature of 50-70 ° C, organic matter is mineralized, and pathogenic microbes, helminth eggs and larvae of flies die. The composting process lasts from 3 to 12 months. The ripened compost is a loose, odorless, loose mass of dark earthy color, which is used as a valuable fertilizer.
Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for sewerage and solid waste disposal at public catering facilities. The sanitary welfare of a catering facility is largely dependent on the proper organization of liquid and solid waste disposal.
Liquid waste disposal.
At catering enterprises, liquid waste is removed using internal household and industrial sewage systems, which are equipped at all enterprises irrespective of their capacity and degree of landscaping.
The arrangement of the sewage system must comply with the requirements of existing building codes and sanitary and epidemiological rules.
All wastewater is discharged into the system of centralized wastewater treatment plants, and in their absence, according to the sanitary-epidemiological conclusion of the sanitary and epidemiological service bodies in the system of local wastewater treatment plants.
The internal sewage system of industrial and domestic wastewater should be separate and have independent releases to the on-site sewage network. In this case, the level of production effluent should be higher than the level of production of fecal water. All rooms equipped with washing bathtubs, sinks, toilets and drains should not be placed below the level of the on-site sewage, which is adjacent to the food facility. Horizontal sewer outlets from all production facilities are necessarily equipped with pipe cleaning devices, and “respiratory” risers are arranged at the end sections of the outlets, preventing wastewater from being sucked in during salvo discharge from the equipment.
It is not allowed to lay internal sewer networks with domestic and industrial drains under the ceiling of dining halls, industrial and warehouse premises of enterprises. Sewer risers are not allowed to be laid in dining rooms, production and storage facilities. It is allowed to lay risers in plastered baskets without revision only in production and storage facilities.
It is important to ensure that process equipment and washing baths are not contaminated with the contents of industrial sewers. To this end, they are connected to a sewer network with an air gap of at least 20 mm from the top of the receiving funnel. All receivers of drains of the internal sewerage must have hydraulic gates (siphons).
For large enterprises, a mandatory requirement is also the installation of facilities for treating wastewater from fat, starch, sand before the latter enters the external sewer network.
When the catering facility is located on the ground floor in residential buildings and buildings for other purposes, it is necessary to provide isolation of the industrial and domestic sewage network of the enterprise from the fecal sewage system of these buildings. For this, the sewer system of the enterprise is connected to the city network in separate outlets. The risers of household sewers from the upper floors of residential buildings and buildings for other purposes are allowed to lay only horizontal or vertical technological channels. The sanitary facilities located above the enterprises, showers and bathrooms should have waterproofing floors.
All production workshops, as well as washing, loading, defroster and food waste storage rooms are equipped with drain ladders with a slope of the floor to them.
In all constructed and reconstructed catering facilities, toilets and sinks for washing hands of personnel should be equipped with special devices that exclude hand contamination (elbow, pedal drives, etc.).
In the vestibule of the toilet for personnel, it is necessary to provide a separate faucet with a mixer for taking water intended for mopping. The crane should be located at a height of 0.5 m from the floor and have a drain ladder with a slope to it.
All stationary catering facilities should have toilets and hand wash basins for visitors. Combination of toilets for staff and visitors is not allowed.
Temporary fast-food enterprises (pavilions, tents, vans, etc.) must be located in places equipped with public toilets.
The discharge of untreated wastewater into open water bodies and absorbing wells is not allowed.
Disposal of garbage and food waste. The accumulation of garbage and food waste at the enterprise can be a source of pollution with foul-smelling toxic gases (for example, hydrogen sulfide), and also contribute to the multiplication of microorganisms and the appearance of flies, insects, rodents, which sharply reduces the level of the sanitary condition of the enterprise.
Food waste is collected in production rooms and washing departments in special containers of small capacity. They are stored in a refrigerated waste chamber at a temperature of no higher than 2 ° C and taken out daily. The location of the waste chambers should provide a minimum way to remove waste from the washing compartments.
Separate containers with lids must be used to collect garbage and food waste on site. Containers are installed on paved grounds whose dimensions exceed the container area by 1 m around the perimeter.
The landfill site must have a sanitary gap of at least 25 m from residential buildings, playgrounds for games and recreation.
Garbage bins are released when no more than 2/3 of their volume is filled, after which they are cleaned and disinfected using means authorized by the sanitary service.
Currently, there is a planned and regulated system for cleaning garbage, providing for its daily removal from the city. An important hygienic measure is the careful isolation of garbage both during storage in waste bins and during transportation. It is estimated that one tens of thousands of flies a day can breed from one garbage can in unsanitary conditions. From the hygienic point of view, a system of removable containers is most acceptable for the collection and disposal of solid waste.
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