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Sapronoses and their prevention
Sapronoses are infectious diseases of people and animals, the reservoir of pathogens of which is the external environment. The causative agents of sapronoses are the natural inhabitants of soils and reservoirs, and they also colonize plants and various organic substrates. Sapronoses include pseudotuberculosis, listeriosis, anthrax, etc.
Pseudotuberculosis is an acute infectious disease, sapronosis. In 1895, K. Ebert discovered nodules in the internal organs of dead animals that resemble tuberculous tubercles and called this disease pseudotuberculosis
The causative agent of pseudotuberculosis - Yersinia pseudotuberculosis belongs to the genus Yersinia, the family of intestinal bacteria Enterobacteriaceae.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis - rods, g-, upon destruction of which endotoxin is released. Some strains produce exotoxin. One of the most important properties of the pathogen is its psychrophilicity, i.e. ability to grow at low temperatures. Pseudotuberculosis bacteria can multiply rapidly at a refrigerator temperature of 4-8 ° C. They are very resistant to repeated freezing and thawing, able to exist for a long time in soil, water, on various food products, and in favorable conditions (at low temperatures and high humidity) they can multiply. However, the pathogen is sensitive to drying, exposure to sunlight. When boiling, it dies in 10-30 seconds. Disinfectant solutions (chloramine, calcium hypochloride, etc.) kill him within a few minutes.
Under natural conditions, many species of mammals and birds suffer from pseudotuberculosis. The main reservoir of pseudotuberculosis bacteria is soil, which is associated not only with contamination of animal excrement, but also with the presence of saprophytic properties in the pseudotuberculosis microbe. Another reservoir of the pathogen and a source of disease for humans are rodents. They infect food and water with their secretions, where the pathogen not only persists, but multiplies at low temperatures and acquires pathogenic properties for humans.
The leading route of transmission is food. The main transmission factors include raw vegetables contaminated with rodent secretions or infected soil, as well as vegetable dishes (salads from cabbage and carrots, vinaigrettes, etc.). The transmission factor may be infected dairy products that are eaten without prior heat treatment. The accumulation of the pathogen in these products is facilitated by their storage in a refrigerator.
Second place is the waterway. It is usually realized when drinking water from open water bodies.
Adults and children are susceptible to pseudotuberculosis, but in the latter it is recorded more often. This is largely due to the fact that most of the children are in groups (nurseries, kindergartens, schools, boarding schools, schools, etc.) with a common catering unit.
Pseudotuberculosis occurs in the form of single and group diseases, which are recorded throughout the year. A seasonal rise in the disease is observed in the spring months (February - March), which is due to the release of vegetable stores and the sale of vegetables and fruits infected with rodents.
The incubation period is 3-18 days. With the disease, the temperature rises to 38-40 ° C, weakness, headache, sore throat, muscles and joints, runny nose, cough, rash, redness of open areas of the body appear. The duration of the disease is from 10 days to 3 months, there may be a severe form and relapse of the disease.
In the system of preventive measures for pseudotuberculosis, the fight against the source and reservoir of infection, rodents, is of great importance.
Measures aimed at spreading the infection include constant sanitary supervision of nutrition and water supply, monitoring of the technological regime of processing and storage of food products, especially those that are not subjected to heat treatment, and maintenance of an appropriate sanitary and anti-epidemic regime in vegetable storages.
Listeriosis is a widespread and dangerous infectious disease in humans and animals. In the Russian Federation, animal listeriosis has been registered since 1956, human listeriosis - only since 1992.
The causative agent of listeriosis - Listeria monocytogenes belongs to the Corinebacteriaceae family. This g + stick, is mobile, does not form spores and capsules, it releases endotoxin upon death.
Listeria well tolerate low temperatures, freezing, drying. In soil, water, straw, grain at low temperatures, listeria can persist for several years. In milk and meat at 4-6 ° С, i.e. when storing food in the refrigerator, they not only do not die, but also multiply intensively. Listeria quickly die when heated and under the influence of ordinary disinfectants.
The reservoir of the pathogen in nature is many species of rodents (mice, rats, jerboas, hares, etc.), as well as foxes, gazelles, wild boars, capercaillie, partridges. In most wild animals, listeriosis proceeds benignly, but infected animals seed the environment with the pathogen.
Listeriosis is found in domestic animals: sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses, chickens, ducks, etc. More often young animals are affected, which often die from severe sepsis.
A person becomes infected as a result of eating meat, milk, cottage cheese, soft cheeses, ice cream obtained from sick and ill animals, as well as salads, vegetables, other products and water infected by rodents. Especially often, infection occurs when early vegetables are consumed, which, when stored in the refrigerator, not only accumulate listeria, but also increase their virulence. The contact mechanism of infection is possible when caring for sick animals, when cutting meat and processing hides. Infection of a person from a person is not described, but intrauterine infection of the fetus from a sick mother is possible. People are infected all year round.
The main contingent of patients is rural residents and livestock workers, however, all groups of the population are susceptible to listeriosis. A peculiar and very important risk contingent is pregnant women who have reduced resistance to listeria.
The incubation period for listeriosis is 2-4 weeks. The disease can occur in various forms. As a rule, it begins suddenly with an increase in temperature to 38-39 ° C, headache, muscle and joint pain, symptoms of necrotic tonsillitis, an increase in lymph nodes, liver, spleen and monocytes in the blood appear. There may be symptoms of meningitis, convulsions, delirium, impaired consciousness, etc. The severe course of the disease is associated with the development of listeriosis sepsis.
Listeriosis is most dangerous for pregnant women, causing miscarriages, stillbirths, fetal malformations, meningoencephalitis, sepsis. Even with the right treatment, mortality in the fetus and newborns reaches 30-50%.
Prevention of listeriosis includes a set of sanitary and veterinary measures in livestock farms and slaughterhouses, the fight against rodents and stray animals. Products suspicious of infection are prohibited. In dysfunctional listeriosis farms, milk is pasteurized or boiled for 10 minutes. Pregnant women are screened for listeriosis.
In accordance with the requirements of SanPiN 184.108.40.2068-01 "Hygienic requirements for food safety and nutritional value" Listeria monocytogenes should not be present in 25 g / ml pasteurized milk, hard cheeses, ice cream, salads (from raw vegetables and fruits, with the addition of eggs, canned vegetables, fruits), sweet foods and drinks.
Anthrax is an acute zoonotic especially dangerous infectious disease.
The causative agent of anthrax Bacillus anthracis is a large immobile spore-forming gram-positive bacillus. The optimum growth temperature is 30-37 ° C. Spore formation occurs only in the presence of oxygen. Spores are unusually stable in the external environment: in water and soil they can persist for decades, can withstand prolonged boiling and even autoclaving at 130 ° C for 5-10 minutes. Vegetative cells are less stable and die at a temperature of 80 ° C after 5 minutes.
The source of infection for humans is sick pets: cattle, horses, goats, sheep, camels, pigs, deer, which are infected through contaminated pasture soil located in places of old cattle burial grounds. A person most often becomes infected through contact with a sick animal or through infected raw materials (fur, skin), as well as when raw or insufficiently cooked meat products are consumed.
Damaged skin (abrasions, scratches, etc.) is usually the entrance gate of anthrax. In rare cases, the pathogen enters the body through the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (by inhaling infected dust) and the gastrointestinal tract. In 98-99%, the disease proceeds in the form of a localized (skin) form, in other cases, in a generalized form.
The incubation period of anthrax ranges from several hours to 14 days, usually 2-3 days. At the site of introduction of the pathogen, itching begins, the skin becomes denser and after 12-24 hours a bubble appears, from which a painless carbuncle with a diameter of several mm to 10 cm forms. The patient's condition worsens, headache is noted, body temperature rises to 39-40 ° C. When combing the carbuncle, an ulcer with a dark brown bottom forms. With a favorable outcome of the disease from the 5-6th day, the temperature decreases and the patient recovers. However, in 20% of patients, the skin form is complicated by damage to internal organs, anthrax sepsis, and has an unfavorable outcome.
Very dangerous is eating meat from sick animals. In this case, an intestinal form of infection develops, which ends with the death of the diseased.
If anthrax is detected in the animal, quarantine is established. Litter, manure and feed residues are burned. The bodies of dead animals are also burned.
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Sapronoses and their prevention
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