Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Food contamination with foreign chemicals
Alien chemical substances (ChW) are also called xenobiotics (from the Greek. Xenos - alien). They include compounds which, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, preserve or improve the quality of the product, or they may form in the product as a result of processing and storage, as well as contaminants from the environment. Wednesday. From the environment, 30-80% of the total amount of foreign chemical substances enters the human body with food.
Foreign substances can be classified by their nature of action, toxicity and degree of danger.
By the nature of the action of ChVV, ingested with food, can:
• have a general toxic effect;
• have an allergic effect (sensitize the body);
• have a carcinogenic effect (cause malignant tumors);
• have an embryotoxic effect (effect on the development of pregnancy and the fetus);
• have a teratogenic effect (malformations of the fetus and the birth of offspring with deformities);
• have a gonadotoxic effect (impair reproductive function, ie impair reproductive function);
• lower the body's defenses;
• accelerate the aging process;
• adversely affect digestion and absorption of nutrients.
The toxicity characterizing the ability of a substance to cause harm to the body takes into account the dose, frequency, route of entry of the harmful substance and the picture of poisoning.
According to the degree of danger, foreign substances are divided into extremely toxic, highly toxic, moderately toxic, low toxic, practically non-toxic and practically harmless.
The most studied acute effect of harmful substances that have a direct effect. It is especially difficult to assess the chronic effects of ChVP on the human body and their long-term effects.
The following may be harmful to the body:
• products containing food additives (dyes, preservatives, antioxidants, etc.) - unproven, unapproved or used in high doses;
• products or individual food substances obtained by the new technology, by chemical or microbiological synthesis, not tested or made in violation of the technology or from substandard raw materials;
• residual amounts of pesticides contained in crop or livestock products obtained using feed or water contaminated with high concentrations of pesticides or in connection with the processing of animal pesticides;
• crop products obtained using unapproved, unauthorized or irrationally applied fertilizers and irrigation water (mineral fertilizers and other agrochemicals, solid and liquid wastes from industry and animal husbandry, domestic wastewater, sewage from sewage treatment plants, etc.);
• livestock and poultry products obtained using unapproved, unauthorized or improperly applied feed additives and preservatives (mineral and nitrogen additives, growth stimulants - antibiotics, hormones, etc.). This group includes food contamination associated with veterinary preventive and therapeutic measures (antibiotics, anthelmintic and other medicines);
• toxicants that migrated to products from equipment, utensils, inventory, containers, packaging using unapproved or unauthorized plastics, polymeric, rubber or other materials;
• toxic substances formed in food products during heat treatment, smoking, frying, enzyme processing, irradiation with ionizing radiation, etc .;
• food products containing toxic substances that migrated from the environment: atmospheric air, soil, water bodies (heavy metals, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, radionuclides, etc.).
This group includes the largest number of ChW.
One of the possible ways that ChVV enters the environment from food products is to include them in the food chain.
“Food chains” are one of the main forms of interconnection between individual organisms, each of which serves as food for other species. In this case, there is a continuous series of transformations of substances in successive links "predator-predator". The main variants of such chains are presented in Fig. 2. The chains may be considered the simplest, in which pollutants enter the plant products from the soil (mushrooms, herbs, vegetables, fruits, crops) as a result of watering plants, processing with pesticides, etc., accumulate in them, and then come into food human organism.
More complex are the "chains" in which there are several links. For example, grass - herbivores - man or grain - birds and animals - man. The most complex “food chains” are usually associated with the aquatic environment.
Fig. 2. Variants of the intake of CHV in the human body through the food chain
Substances dissolved in water are extracted by phytoplactone, the latter is then absorbed by zooplankton (protozoa, crustaceans), then absorbed by “peaceful” and then predatory fish, entering them into the human body. But the chain can be continued by eating fish by birds and omnivores and only then harmful substances enter the human body.
The peculiarity of “food chains” is that in each subsequent link there is a cumulation (accumulation) of pollutants in a much larger amount than in the previous link. So, in fungi, the concentration of radioactive substances can be 1,000-10,000 times higher than in soil. Thus, in foods entering the human body, very high concentrations of CHV can be contained.
In order to protect human health from the harmful effects of foreign substances that enter the body through food, certain limits are established to guarantee the safe use of products in which foreign substances are present.
The main principles of environmental protection and food products from foreign chemicals include:
• hygienic regulation of the content of chemicals in environmental objects (air, water, soil, food products) and the development of sanitary legislation on their basis (sanitary rules, etc.);
• development of new technologies in various industries and agriculture that minimally pollute the environment (replacing highly hazardous chemicals with less toxic and unstable in the environment; sealing and automation of production processes; transition to non-waste production, closed cycles, etc.);
• introduction of effective sanitary facilities at enterprises to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, neutralize wastewater, solid waste, etc .;
• development and implementation during the construction of planned measures to prevent environmental pollution (site selection for the construction of the facility, the creation of a sanitary protection zone, etc.);
• state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of objects polluting the atmospheric air, water bodies, soil, food raw materials;
• implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of facilities where contamination of food raw materials and foodstuffs of ChVV (food industry enterprises, agricultural enterprises, food warehouses, catering enterprises, etc.) may occur.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
Food contamination with foreign chemicals
- Alien chemicals in food
Foreign chemical substances (CHV) include compounds that, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, maintain or improve the quality of the product and its nutritional properties, or they may form in the product as a result of technological processing (heating, frying, irradiation, etc.) and storage, as well as
- Principles for the protection of the environment and food from chemical pollution
1. Hygienic standards for the content of chemicals in environmental objects (air, water, soil, food products) and the sanitary legislation developed on their basis (sanitary rules, GOSTs, etc.) are the most important medical criteria when planning environmental protection measures and determining their effectiveness. 2. Development of new technologies in various
- Carcinogenic chemicals in food
One of the oldest medical problems is Nutrition and Cancer. This is because food may contain carcinogenic chemicals (CCC) and their precursors. KHV sources primarily include waste from industrial enterprises, thermal power plants, heating systems and vehicles. Migrating in the atmosphere, in soil and in water bodies, these carcinogens can enter food products. Of such
- Prevention measures for industrial pollution by harmful chemicals
The basis of preventive measures (see Chapter 10) is the integrated application of legislative, technological, hygienic and medical and preventive measures. We single out hygienic and medical and preventive measures: recording and investigating the causes of occupational poisoning; preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees; sanitary instruction; use of measures
- Chemical poisoning
This group of non-microbial food poisoning includes poisoning caused by pesticides, nitrites and other food additives when their content is high in food products, impurities transferred to products from equipment, supplies, containers, packaging films, etc. Poisoning with nitrites and other food additives when they are increased content in products Nitrite poisoning. With constant
- Poisoning by chemical compounds formed during storage, processing and preparation of food products
Along with their constituent parts, food products may contain substances that are formed as a result of chemical reactions during storage, processing and preparation of food products. Despite the fact that these substances are found in negligible quantities, some of them pose a great danger to the human body, therefore, at present, the FAO / WHO and
- Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food
Hygienic regulation is mandatory for all toxic substances entering the human body from the environment - air, water, soil, food, materials in contact with food, etc. Any chemical is toxic under certain exposure conditions. Toxicity - the ability of a substance to harm a living organism. On the human body
- The chemical composition of water. Water pollution: physical, chemical, bacteriological. Self-cleaning ability of water sources
The chemical composition of water. In nature, water almost always contains more or less mineral salts dissolved in it. The degree and mineral composition of water is determined by the nature of the soil or soils adjacent to aquifers or surface water sources. The amount of mineral salts contained in the water is expressed in mg / L. Organic matter Of these, the most important
- Chemical pollution
Heavy metals Food and water contaminated with heavy metals pose a threat to the health of infants and young children. This section will focus on lead and cadmium. Table 48 lists foods that may be contaminated with these heavy metals. Lead Lead has the ability to form compounds in bones and can replace calcium.
- Hygienic principles of regulation of ChVV in a daily diet, food products
In food hygiene, the basic regulation is the allowable daily dose (DSD) of normalized FVC. ChDV DSD is the maximum dose (in milligrams per 1 kg of body weight), the daily oral intake of which is harmless throughout a person’s life, i.e. It does not adversely affect the life and health of present and future generations. Multiplying DSD by human body weight (60
- Subject: Immunology as a science of methods and mechanisms of protection against genetically foreign substances in order to maintain homeostasis of the body
The emergence and formation of immunology as a science, the stages of the formation of immunology. The role of domestic and foreign scientists in the development of immunology, Nobel laureates in the field of immunology. The main directions of modern immunology: cellular, molecular, clinical, transplantation, environmental immunology; immunogenetics, immunopathology, allergology, immunomorphology, immunochemistry,
- Types of chemical environmental pollution, their impact on health
Chemical pollution of the environment with substances unusual for it (xenobiotics) is currently the most ambitious and significant. The main harmful substances that pollute the atmospheric water are the following: a) nitrogen oxides, especially nitrogen dioxide - a colorless odorless poisonous gas that irritates the respiratory system when increased
- Test. Physiological and hygienic value of food products. Energy Evaluation of Diet, 2009
Introduction.Physiological role and hygienic value of proteins. Physiological role and hygienic value of fats. Physiological role and hygienic value of carbohydrates. Physiological and hygienic assessment of the main trace elements. Vitamins. Energy assessment of food ration.
- Chemical preservation
In our country, a limited number of chemicals are used for canning. Their use is allowed only in cases where other methods of conservation are ineffective. Three groups of chemicals are allowed for use: antiseptics, antibiotics, antioxidants. Preservation with antiseptics. Currently for canning products in industrial
- The effect of antimicrobial chemicals on microorganisms
In addition to nutrient chemicals that have a positive effect on microorganisms, there are a number of chemicals that inhibit or completely stop their growth. Chemicals cause either microbicidal (death of microorganisms) or microbostatic effect (they stop their growth, but after removal of this substance, growth resumes again). Nature of action (microbicidal