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Food contamination with foreign chemicals

Alien chemical substances (ChW) are also called xenobiotics (from the Greek. Xenos - alien). They include compounds which, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, preserve or improve the quality of the product, or they may form in the product as a result of processing and storage, as well as contaminants from the environment. Wednesday. From the environment, 30-80% of the total amount of foreign chemical substances enters the human body with food.

Foreign substances can be classified by their nature of action, toxicity and degree of danger.

By the nature of the action of ChVV, ingested with food, can:

• have a general toxic effect;

• have an allergic effect (sensitize the body);

• have a carcinogenic effect (cause malignant tumors);

• have an embryotoxic effect (effect on the development of pregnancy and the fetus);

• have a teratogenic effect (malformations of the fetus and the birth of offspring with deformities);

• have a gonadotoxic effect (impair reproductive function, ie impair reproductive function);

• lower the body's defenses;

• accelerate the aging process;

• adversely affect digestion and absorption of nutrients.

The toxicity characterizing the ability of a substance to cause harm to the body takes into account the dose, frequency, route of entry of the harmful substance and the picture of poisoning.

According to the degree of danger, foreign substances are divided into extremely toxic, highly toxic, moderately toxic, low toxic, practically non-toxic and practically harmless.

The most studied acute effect of harmful substances that have a direct effect. It is especially difficult to assess the chronic effects of ChVP on the human body and their long-term effects.

The following may be harmful to the body:

• products containing food additives (dyes, preservatives, antioxidants, etc.) - unproven, unapproved or used in high doses;

• products or individual food substances obtained by the new technology, by chemical or microbiological synthesis, not tested or made in violation of the technology or from substandard raw materials;

• residual amounts of pesticides contained in crop or livestock products obtained using feed or water contaminated with high concentrations of pesticides or in connection with the processing of animal pesticides;

• crop products obtained using unapproved, unauthorized or irrationally applied fertilizers and irrigation water (mineral fertilizers and other agrochemicals, solid and liquid wastes from industry and animal husbandry, domestic wastewater, sewage from sewage treatment plants, etc.);

• livestock and poultry products obtained using unapproved, unauthorized or improperly applied feed additives and preservatives (mineral and nitrogen additives, growth stimulants - antibiotics, hormones, etc.). This group includes food contamination associated with veterinary preventive and therapeutic measures (antibiotics, anthelmintic and other medicines);

• toxicants that migrated to products from equipment, utensils, inventory, containers, packaging using unapproved or unauthorized plastics, polymeric, rubber or other materials;

• toxic substances formed in food products during heat treatment, smoking, frying, enzyme processing, irradiation with ionizing radiation, etc .;

• food products containing toxic substances that migrated from the environment: atmospheric air, soil, water bodies (heavy metals, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, radionuclides, etc.).
This group includes the largest number of ChW.

One of the possible ways that ChVV enters the environment from food products is to include them in the food chain.

“Food chains” are one of the main forms of interconnection between individual organisms, each of which serves as food for other species. In this case, there is a continuous series of transformations of substances in successive links "predator-predator". The main variants of such chains are presented in Fig. 2. The chains may be considered the simplest, in which pollutants enter the plant products from the soil (mushrooms, herbs, vegetables, fruits, crops) as a result of watering plants, processing with pesticides, etc., accumulate in them, and then come into food human organism.

More complex are the "chains" in which there are several links. For example, grass - herbivores - man or grain - birds and animals - man. The most complex “food chains” are usually associated with the aquatic environment.



Fig. 2. Variants of the intake of CHV in the human body through the food chain



Substances dissolved in water are extracted by phytoplactone, the latter is then absorbed by zooplankton (protozoa, crustaceans), then absorbed by “peaceful” and then predatory fish, entering them into the human body. But the chain can be continued by eating fish by birds and omnivores and only then harmful substances enter the human body.

The peculiarity of “food chains” is that in each subsequent link there is a cumulation (accumulation) of pollutants in a much larger amount than in the previous link. So, in fungi, the concentration of radioactive substances can be 1,000-10,000 times higher than in soil. Thus, in foods entering the human body, very high concentrations of CHV can be contained.

In order to protect human health from the harmful effects of foreign substances that enter the body through food, certain limits are established to guarantee the safe use of products in which foreign substances are present.

The main principles of environmental protection and food products from foreign chemicals include:

• hygienic regulation of the content of chemicals in environmental objects (air, water, soil, food products) and the development of sanitary legislation on their basis (sanitary rules, etc.);

• development of new technologies in various industries and agriculture that minimally pollute the environment (replacing highly hazardous chemicals with less toxic and unstable in the environment; sealing and automation of production processes; transition to non-waste production, closed cycles, etc.);

• introduction of effective sanitary facilities at enterprises to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, neutralize wastewater, solid waste, etc .;

• development and implementation during the construction of planned measures to prevent environmental pollution (site selection for the construction of the facility, the creation of a sanitary protection zone, etc.);

• state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of objects polluting the atmospheric air, water bodies, soil, food raw materials;

• implementation of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of facilities where contamination of food raw materials and foodstuffs of ChVV (food industry enterprises, agricultural enterprises, food warehouses, catering enterprises, etc.) may occur.
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Food contamination with foreign chemicals

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    Foreign chemical substances (CHV) include compounds that, by their nature and quantity, are not inherent in a natural product, but can be added to improve technology, maintain or improve the quality of the product and its nutritional properties, or they may form in the product as a result of technological processing (heating, frying, irradiation, etc.) and storage, as well as
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