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The clinical picture of HIV infection can be very diverse, ranging from acute seroconversion and ending with fully expressed true AIDS many years later. The infection may be asymptomatic or clinically apparent.
The initial period after the first contact with the virus is usually asymptomatic and can last up to six weeks. When symptoms finally appear, they are often non-specific. There is the so-called seroconversion disease. During acute seroconversion, a disease similar to glandular inflammation is observed: the patient suffers from fever, malaise, lethargy, pain in muscles and joints, catarrh of the throat, lymphadenopathy. In the initial period, reversible encephalopathy with loss of orientation, memory, shifts in consciousness, acute meningitis, myelopathy and neuropathy can also be noted.
Probably not everyone who has had seroconversion will get to a chronic infection.
In many, the transition to the latent phase is possible. Nevertheless, in this phase the patient is infectious, although not to the same extent as during the period of seroconversion or the stage of severe AIDS.
Chronic infection may also be asymptomatic. Its known clinical signs include cytopenia, minor concomitant infections and skin diseases, lymphadenopathy, and the AIDS-associated complex.
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- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
The triads and pentads described by classics of MS research are currently not sufficient for the clinical characteristics of MS patients. In the clinical picture of this disease, 2 groups of symptoms can be identified: classic and rare. The first group includes the most common symptoms, which are a direct manifestation of damage to the conducting systems of the brain. This also includes
- Clinical manifestations
In the initial stage of diabetes, the course of atherosclerosis is latent. In this regard, the allocation of the preclinical period of atherosclerosis is justified. During this period, changes at the biochemical level are possible. In the blood plasma, three main classes of lipids are determined: cholesterol and its esters, trnglcerides, phospholipids. Of great clinical importance is the determination of blood cholesterol in HDL, LDL, VLDL. HDL for
- Clinical manifestations of hyponatremia
With hyponatremia, neurological disorders predominate, due to overhydration of brain cells. The severity of the condition depends on the rate of development of extracellular fluid hypoosmolality. Mild to moderate hyponatremia, when the plasma sodium concentration is> 125 meq / l, is often asymptomatic. Early clinical symptoms are usually non-specific and include anorexia, nausea, and weakness.
- Pathogenesis of clinical manifestations
Pheochromocytoma usually makes its debut with symptoms associated with excessive production of catecholamines and their systemic effect on organs and systems with a predominance of, as a rule, cardiovascular changes. By no means always hemodynamic fluctuations in pheochromocytoma are a direct consequence of the increased production of catecholamines directly by the tumor. One of the non-specific factors is
- Eczema. Clinical manifestations
Clinic. Eczema can begin acutely or chronically and subsequently usually lasts a long time with a tendency to relapse. Any area of the skin can be affected. In the acute phase, eczema is manifested by a rash on the hyperemic and slightly edematous skin of small closely grouped papules that quickly transform into tiny vesicles (the so-called microvesicles), which are located in groups and do not
- Features of the clinical manifestations of syphilitic infection
At present, dermatovenereology is experiencing certain difficulties in the diagnosis of syphilis, since syphilitic manifestations do not always correspond to the clinic previously described in the specialized literature. Taking antibiotics, self-medication, drinking alcohol, unbalanced nutrition, the negative effects of environmental and other factors affect the immunological status, which
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF LUNG CANCER
The clinical symptoms of lung cancer are largely determined by the location of the tumor, its size, growth form, and the nature of metastasis. Manifestations of lung cancer are very diverse: it is an enlarged focal formation in the lungs, visible with dynamic chest x-ray; symptoms of compression and obstruction of tissues and organs adjacent to the tumor; increase
- Clinical manifestations
Classical pneumococcal pneumonia begins suddenly; noted a rise in body temperature, a productive cough and chest pain. In debilitated individuals and the elderly, the disease develops slowly, with a slight fever, impaired consciousness and signs of pulmonary heart disease. Streptococcal meningitis is recorded in all age groups; they are characterized by a stormy beginning
- Clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia
The most significant effect of hyperkalemia on skeletal muscle and myocardium. Generalized muscle weakness occurs when the concentration of potassium in the plasma is> 8 meq / l. Its cause is persistent spontaneous depolarization and inactivation of the sodium channels of the muscle cell membrane (as with succinylcholine), which ultimately leads to ascending paralysis. When the concentration of potassium in the plasma> 7
- FEATURES OF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HEREDITARY DISEASES
Despite the diversity of the clinical picture of hereditary diseases, their common features can be distinguished, which allows to identify or exclude the presence of pathology in the subject. The basis for the formation of a community of clinical characteristics of various forms of hereditary diseases is the genetic control of key links in metabolism and morphogenetic processes. Although hereditary diseases,
- Clinical manifestations of VPU syndrome
The clinical manifestations of VPU syndrome depend on the physiological characteristics of the additional pathway. The most serious complications in such patients are a consequence of the development of regular paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and (or) atrial fibrillation. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation can even lead to sudden death, which is discussed below [6, 31–35]. Paroxysmal tachycardia
- Clinical manifestations of syncope
Syncopal states, despite their short duration, represent a time-unfolded process in which stages that successively replace each other can be distinguished: precursors (presyncopal state), peak (actually syncopal state) and recovery (postsyncopal state). The severity of clinical manifestations and the duration of each of these stages is very
- Clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia
Hypercalcemia is often manifested by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and polyuria. Ataxia, irritability, drowsiness and confusion can quickly be replaced by a coma. Initially, until hypovolemia develops, arterial hypertension often occurs. Shortened ST segment and QT interval on the ECG. Hypercalcemia significantly increases myocardial sensitivity to cardiac
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SYPHILIS
- Clinical manifestations of sinus dysfunction
SSSU is distinguished from regulatory dysfunctions of the CA node, because their prognostic assessment and treatment methods are different. However, from a clinical point of view, these conditions are often and not without reason considered in the same context [Residue F. E., 1968, 1978; Almazov V.A. et al., 1979; Doshchitsin V.L., 1979; Rugenius, Yu. Yu. Et al., 1979; Puchkov A. Yu., Kharchenko Yu. M., 1984; Shulman V.A. et al., 1984, 1987;
- Clinical manifestations of the primary period of syphilis
Primary syphiloma is the first clinical manifestation of the disease that occurs at the site of the introduction of pale treponemas through the skin and mucous membranes (in the area of the entrance gate). The appearance of an erosive or ulcerative defect is preceded by the appearance of a small hyperimic inflammatory spot, which after 2-3 days turns into a papule. Shortly after the appearance of the papule, the epidermis covering it
- Tertiary period of syphilis. Clinical manifestations
Lumpy syphilis. Typical places of its localization are the extensor surface of the upper limbs, trunk, face. The lesion focus occupies a small area of the skin, is located asymmetrically. The main morphological element of tubercular syphilide is a tubercle (dense, hemispherical, cavityless formation of a rounded shape, dense-elastic consistency). Grouped
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF NERVOUS DISEASES
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND LABORATORY STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH DYSLIPIDEMIA
External manifestations of dyslipidemia In most patients with moderate dyslipidemia, external signs of lipid metabolism disorders are absent. The appearance of external signs of impaired lipid metabolism in the form of xanthelasms on the eyelids (Fig. 2.8), the lipoid arch of the cornea, tuberous and tendon xanthomas in the skin of the hands, elbows and knees (Fig. 2.9), Achilles tendons are more often noted in
- Clinical manifestations, features of the course of phosphorus intoxication
Of clinical interest is not acute, but chronic intoxication with inorganic compounds of phosphorus (the most toxic yellow phosphorus has been studied quite well compared to others). According to B.A. Atchabarov / 50 /, not all organs undergo pathomorphological changes to the same extent. Their severity obeyed the following regularity, from greater to lesser: liver, lungs, kidneys,