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Lesson 4 Topic: MEDICINE IN RUSSIA OF THE I HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY. PATHOGENESIS THEORIES

Targets and goals:

1. Show the most important socio-economic events from the history of Russia in the first half of the nineteenth century. (Patriotic War of 1812. The Decembrist uprising of 1825, peasant unrest, defeat in the Crimean War, etc.). And against their background, to reveal the further development of revolutionary democratic thought in the works of A.N. Radishchev, V.G. Belinsky, A.I. Herzen and others, and its influence and statement in natural science and medicine of the natural scientific methodology.

2. To trace the connection between the growth of industry, cities, the army, navy, population, and the increased need for medical personnel and the need to improve medical care in the country.

3. The opening of new universities in Russia, the formation of scientific schools in the context of the persecution of materialism and progressive, revolutionary-democratic views.

4. The introduction of an experimental direction in medicine: the formation of physiology as a science. Formation of the idea of ​​the essence of the pathological process. The development of nervousness and the formation of neurogenic theory in Russia.

5. Show the contribution of domestic scientists to the development of physiology.

The logical structure and the main elements of the lesson:

Medicine in Russia in the first half of the 19th century

Characteristic era. Materialistic ideas A.N. Radishchev. Decembrists' views on health issues. The opening of new universities and medical faculties at them. Two leading centers for the development of medical science are the Medical and Surgical Academy and the Faculty of Medicine of Moscow University. Medicine in the Patriotic War of 1812

The aggravation of the struggle between materialism and idealism in medicine in connection with the exacerbation of the class struggle and the achievements of natural science.

The influence of French materialism on medicine. French materialists: A. Leroy, J. Lametry, J. Cabanis. Correspondence of 18th century French materialism in the scientific picture of the world (scientific paradigm), its mechanistic and metaphysical character.

The great natural science discoveries of the late XVIII and first half of the XIX centuries. - the basis for the development of a dialectical materialistic view of nature. The discovery of the law of conservation and conversion of energy and matter (M.V. Lomonosov, 1748, A. Lavoisier, 1773). The unity of the cellular structure of animals and plant organisms (T. Schwann, M. Schleiden, 1839). The evolutionary teachings of C. Darwin. His book "On the Origin of Species ..." (1859). The synthesis of urea by Weller in 1828 by F. Engels on the significance of the great discoveries of science.

Features of the development of physiology in ancient times and the era of feudalism. Rene Descartes.

The formation of physiology as a science. The influence of experimental physiology on the development of medicine. F. Majandi, C. Bernard, I. Muller, G. Helmholtz. The union of the experiment and clinic K. Bernard. Creation of clinical and physiological laboratories. L. Traube, S.P. Botkin.

The development of domestic physiology in the XIX century. A.M. Filomafitsky - the creator of the first physiological school in Russia (physiology of respiration, digestion, blood transfusion experiments, experimental anesthesia research), author of the first Russian physiology textbook “Physiology, published to guide his students”.

The development of nervousness and the formation of a neurogenic theory in Russia: E.O. Mukhin, I.E. Dyadkovsky, I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, S.P. Botkin.

THEM. Sechenov and his work: “Reflexes of the brain” (1863). His contribution to the study of the physiology of the central nervous system, respiration and blood gases, metabolism, physiology of work. School I.M. Sechenov.

The contribution of domestic scientists to the development of physiology: N.E. Vvedensky, A.A. Ukhtomsky, V.V. Pashutin. The first clinical and physiological laboratories (S.P. Botkin).

I.P. Pavlov - the founder of the doctrine of conditioned reflexes and higher nervous activity. His works “Lectures on the work of the main digestive glands” (1897), “Twenty years of experience in the objective study of the higher nervous activity (behavior) of animals” (1923), “Lectures on the work of the cerebral hemispheres” (1927). Nobel Prize 1904 School of I.P. Pavlov. "Letter to the Youth" (1935).

The most important achievements of theoretical, clinical and preventive medicine. The role of the experiment in physiology, pathology and microbiology, in deepening the understanding of the pathogenesis and clinic of diseases.

Formation of the idea of ​​the essence of the pathological process in the XIX century:

- humoral theory (K.Rokitansky),

- cellulary theory (R.Virkhov),

- Theory of nervousness (I.M.Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, M.Ya. Mudrov, S.P. Botkin A.A. Ostroumov, etc.).

Establishing the role of vitamins (N. I. Lunin, K. Funk). Study of the role of endocrine glands and hormones and their therapeutic use (C. Brown-Secar, L.V. Sobolev, F. Bunting).

Lesson content

In the first half of the XIX century. medicine in Russia developed under the conditions of the decomposition of the feudal-serf system, the formation and growth of capitalist relations. The exploitation of factory and peasant labor intensified, the enslavement of peasants and the disenfranchised position of workers increased. Industry developed, the number of workers in factories and plants increased several times. Most of the population moved away from agriculture and moved to cities, which led to an increase in the number of cities and the number of citizens.

Severe living and working conditions, the lack of rights of the people led to mass unrest and peasant wars. After the French Revolution (1793) and the Patriotic War of 1812, the inconsistency of the autocratic power and the need for emancipation of the peasants became apparent to the advanced part of the nobility.

In 1815, Russia stood at the head of the reactionary "Holy Alliance", ruthlessly suppressing the revolutionary sentiments of the intelligentsia. On behalf of Alexander I, in 1818 a university audit was carried out, which terrified the examiners from the “destructive materialism” that pervaded teaching, especially at the medical faculty. As a result, an anatomical museum was closed at Kazan University, and anatomical preparations were buried with church rites.

The leading representatives of Russian society opposed the reactionary ideology of the autocratic serfdom in Russia, which was reflected in the 1825 Decembrist uprising. The philosophical materialistic views of the Decembrists were prepared by the whole history of Russian social thought of the eighteenth century. Decembrists were brought up on the ideas of A.N. Radishchev. The philosophical materialism of the Decembrists was based on the latest achievements of the natural sciences - physics, chemistry, biology.

The views of the Decembrists occupied a significant place in the history of Russian philosophy. The Decembrists' program, along with political and economic ones, included requirements for the protection of public health. The Decembrists considered it necessary in every volost to arrange a children's shelter, maternity hospital, and hospital. The volost doctor is obliged to "use the patients for free." For the first time in the history of Russian public life, the Decembrists raised the issue of providing for disabled people, recognizing this as a state duty. They believed that “assisting the disabled” should not be in the form of grace, but in the form of legal law.

The reaction from the tsarist government to materialism and the revolutionary democratic movement, intensified after the December uprising, was expressed in the persecution and persecution of advanced scientists, the closure of universities, and the introduction of a number of restrictive measures in the activities of scientific and educational institutions.

Against this background, which impeded the development of scientific and educational work, N.P. Ogarev, V.G. Belinsky, N.A. Dobrolyubov, A.I. Herzen, published his numerous works, which affirmed materialism as the leading worldview among the intelligentsia.

Russian doctors continued to successfully develop the materialistic direction of the main problems of medicine: the relationship between the body and the environment, the integrity of the body, the unity of the physical and mental.

Great successes by that time were achieved in the field of basic medical sciences (anatomy, physiology, pathology) and clinical disciplines (therapy, surgery).
Domestic pathology, which at that time gained independent importance as a scientific and educational discipline, developed, on the basis of natural science research, methodological approaches to understanding the essence of “health” and “disease”. This approach contributed to a critical attitude towards theoretical constructions, both of the humoralists (K. Rokitansky) and the solidarists (R. Virkhov).

During this period, scientific medical schools began to form in Russia, led by large researchers - university and academy teachers, who developed various scientific areas, improved teaching methods, wrote textbooks and educated students who promoted and developed the ideas of teachers. Such schools were formed in Moscow around M.Ya. Mudrova, E.O. Mukhina, E.I. Dyadkovsky and in St. Petersburg school I.F. Bush, I.V. Buyalsky, P.A. Zagorsky and N.I. Pirogov.

To obtain this or that rank, it was necessary to hold the corresponding exam. Doctors passed examinations in operative surgery and surgical anatomy and had to know all the big and small operations. The doctor of medicine, in addition, was obliged to write and defend a dissertation. The doctor of medicine and surgery has publicly performed two complex operations. The operator on the exam had to do one important operation.

Thus, in the first half of the XIX century. the obligatory performance of operations by healers was legalized. Doctors had the right to treat all diseases without exception and to perform all operations.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the main state management body for medicine was the Medical Department (part of the Ministry of the Interior) with the Medical Council existing under it as a scientific and medical body. Its creation was caused by the development of medical science and the need to coordinate scientific research, as well as to develop legislation and projects in the field of medicine.

In 1810, universities and medical and surgical academies began to award degrees.

The development of health issues - hygiene, disease prevention, combating infectious diseases, improving teaching methods for students - characterize the achievements of scientific and practical medicine in the first half of the 19th century.

Test questions:

1. Description of the political, economic and cultural development in Russia in the first half of the XIX century.

2. The struggle of materialism and idealism in medicine and its influence on the development of medical science and practice.

3. The contribution of A. M. Filomafitsky to the development of physiology.

4. The contribution of IM Sechenov to the development of physiology.

5. The contribution of IP Pavlov to the development of physiology.

6. Contribution of domestic scientists to the development of domestic physiology: N.E. Vvedensky, A.A. Ukhtomsky, V.V. Pashutin, etc.

7. Contribution of SP Botkin in the establishment of experimental medicine.

8. The formation of the idea of ​​the essence of the pathological process in the XIX century:

- humoral theory (K.Rokitansky),

- cellulary theory (R.Virkhova),

- Theory of nervousness (I.M.Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, M.Ya. Mudrov, S.P. Botkin, etc.).

Literature for the lesson:

1. Sorokina T.S. The history of medicine.- M .: Academy, 2004.

2. Zabludovsky EP The history of medicine. M., 1981.

3. Zheleznikova L.I., Kolyado E.V., Rumor E.Yu. Teaching aid on the history of medicine. / Ed. V.B. Kolyado. - Barnaul: GOU VPO ASMU Roszdrav. - 2010.

Topics for reports:

1. I.M. Sechenov and his scientific contribution to the development of physiology.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief curriculum vitae.

2. The contribution of the scientist to the development of physiology of Russia.

3. The value of his works for the subsequent development of this science in our country.

LITERATURE:

1. Asrotyan E.A., Shingarov G.Kh. Father of Russian physiology; On the 150th anniversary of the birth of I.M.Sechenov. Zhurn. higher nervous activity named after Pavlov. 1979, Vol. 29, no. 3, p. 451-456. Port.

2. The great Russian physiologist Sechenov. M., Goskultprosvetizdat, 1946, 24 p.

3. Gorbachev A. I. Sechenov and the novel Chernyshevsky "What to do?" // Doctor. - 1996. - No. 2. - S. 46.

2. I.P. Pavlov and his scientific contribution to the development of physiology.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief biographical data.

2. Contribution of IP Pavlova in the physiology of blood circulation.

3. Development by scientists of the physiology of digestion.

4. Creation of IP Pavlov physiology of higher nervous activity and its importance for medicine.

5. Social activities I.P. Pavlova.

6. The value of his works for the subsequent development of this science in our country.

LITERATURE:

1. Anichkov S.V. The theoretical heritage of I.P. Pavlov and its influence on the development of domestic medicine. Bulletin of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. 1976, No. 4. - S.69-75.

2. Anichkov S.V. and Grebenin. Pavlov I.P. as a pharmacologist. M., 1950.

3. Biryukov D.A. The life and work of the great Russian scientist I.P. Pavlov. (On the occasion of the 100th birthday). M., ed. Pravda, 1949, 31 p.

4. Biryukov D.A. I.P. Pavlov. M .: "Medicine". 1967 .-- 74 p.

5. Dionisov S.M. I.P. Pavlov, his life and work. To the 100th anniversary of his birth. M., 1949, 22 p.

6. Sudakov K. Scientific ideas of IP Pavlov and their development in the theory of functional systems. //Doctor. - 1999. - No. 5. - S. 43.

3. N.E. Vvedensky - a contribution to the development of domestic physiology.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief curriculum vitae.

2. The contribution of the scientist to the development of physiology of Russia.

3. The value of his works for the subsequent development of this science in our country.

LITERATURE:

1. Akhmetov K.Yu. N.E. Vvedensky. To the 125th anniversary of his birth. Health of Tajikistan, 1977, No. 2, p.76.

2. B.M.E. M., 1976.- T.4.- S. 56-57.

4. A.A. Ukhtomsky is a contribution to the development of domestic physiology.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief curriculum vitae.

2. The contribution of the scientist to the development of physiology of Russia.

3. The value of his works for the subsequent development of this science in our country.

LITERATURE:

1. Academician A.A. Ukhtomsky. (On the occasion of the 100th birthday). Neurophysiology, 1975, T. 7, No. 6, S. 655-656.

2. B.M.E. M., 1985 .-- T.26. - S. 157-158.

3. Uflyand Yu.M. The scientific path of academician A.A. Ukhtomsky. (On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth). Occupational health and occupational diseases, 1975, No. 12, p.40-41. Port.

5. V. Pashutin - a contribution to the development of domestic physiology.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief curriculum vitae.

2. The contribution of the scientist to the development of physiology of Russia.

3. The value of his works for the subsequent development of this science in our country.

LITERATURE:

1. B.M.E. M., 1982. - T. 18. - S. 434.

2. Veselkin P.N. V.V. Pashutin (1845-1901). M., 1950, 230 p.

Additional topics for class reports:

1. A.M. Filomafitsky - the creator of the first physiological school in Russia.

2. The doctrine of vitamins (NI Lunin, K. Funk).

3. The life and work of the great Russian scientist I.M. Sechenov.

4. The life and work of the great Russian scientist I.P. Pavlova.

5. The formation of the idea of ​​the essence of the pathological process in the XIX century.

6. The influence of French materialism on medicine. French materialists: A. Leroy, J. Lametry, J. Cabanis.
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Lesson 4 Topic: MEDICINE IN RUSSIA OF THE I HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY. PATHOGENESIS THEORIES

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