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The two main types of tumors of the esophagus - squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma - have different etiologies and their own course, therefore, should be considered separately. The unequal incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in different countries has long puzzled scientists. It is believed that differences in the frequency of its occurrence depend on the uneven effect of one or more environmental carcinogens. Thus, severe chronic esophagitis is an important predisposing factor for the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in young people, especially in areas with an increased risk of developing this disease. The cause of this inflammatory process is still unknown, but the oxygen radicals formed during it are strong carcinogens. On the other hand, in China, patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and in the carcinomas themselves often find the human papillomavirus. Precancerous changes in the esophagus in these patients have mutations in the p53 gene, which, like colon cancer, leads to the accumulation of abnormal p53 protein.
With Barrett's esophagitis, the squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced by metaplastic columnar epithelium (intestinal type).
It is believed that such a change in the epithelium is associated with the presence of constant gastroesophageal reflux, in which the epithelium is damaged with its gradual replacement with a more resistant type to an acidic environment. Esophageal adenocarcinoma may arise from such a metaplastic epithelium.
At the beginning of malignancy, aneuploidy is often observed in the cells of the metaplastic epithelium, which reflects the instability of the pre-tumor cell genotype and serves as a marker of an increased risk of malignancy. This occurrence of instability of the genotype in the early stages of cancer of the esophagus determines its malignant course, in comparison with colon cancer, when such changes occur quite late.
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- Esophageal carcinoma
In 1996, as a result of a study in the People's Republic of China published by Wang, performed on data on 125 patients with esophageal cancer and treated with RT in addition to XT +/– RGT, it almost doubled the level of OS by 3 years (24% without GT, 42% with
- Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
There is no reliable data on the incidence of adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus, but it is proved that the risk of the disease increases in this case by 20-40 times. Presumably, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are similar to those in colon cancer - chronic damage to the epithelium and cell proliferation lead to genetic rearrangements and, ultimately, to the neoplastic process.
- Benign Tumors of the Esophagus
Classification 1. Solitary myomyomas. - acquired neoplasia. 2. Nodose-multiple myomas. 3. Common leiomyomatosis 4. Polyps: adenomas, lipomas, etc. 5. Cysts. Diagnostic criteria Dysphagia, dyspepsia; pain along the esophagus. Examples of diagnosis: 1. Solitary myoma of the esophagus. 2. Knotty-multiple esophageal myomas. 3.
- Esophageal stricture
- narrowing of the esophagus associated with congenital or acquired factors Classification of cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus (G. L. Ratner, VI Belokonev, 1982) By etiology: burns with acids, alkalis, other burns By the time of obstruction: early (3-4 weeks), late (later than 1 month) According to the mechanism of development and clinical manifestations: A. Functional obstruction of the esophagus 1.
- Esophageal diseases
1. What symptom is most often observed in diseases of the esophagus? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation is the passive, retrograde movement of swallowed food to the upper sphincter of the esophagus; as a rule, food does not have time to get into the stomach. Most often, regurgitation occurs as a result of a violation of the motility of the esophagus, esophageal obstruction or asynchronous
- Esophagus DIVERTICULES
- blindly ending process or protrusion of the organ. LINKER DIVERTICULES - localized along the back wall of the pharynx and esophagus. Classification of diverticulums of the esophagus, diverticulitis (according to Yusbasic, 1961) By localization: 1. Pharyngo-esophagic (Tsenker), 2. Bifurcation. 3. Epiphrenal. Largest diverticulum: Stage I - protrusion of the mucous membrane of the esophagus
The esophagus (esophagus) is a cylindrical tube 25-30 cm long that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It begins at the level of the VI cervical vertebra, passes through the chest cavity, diaphragm and flows into the stomach to the left of the X-XI thoracic vertebra. There are three parts of the esophagus: cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The cervical part is located between the trachea and the spine at the level of the VI cervical and up to the II thoracic
- Esophageal anesthesia
General information Operations on the esophagus are performed for tumors, gastroesophageal reflux and motor disorders (achalasia). Operations include endoscopy, dilatation of the esophagus, cervical esopha-homiotomy, open or thoracoscopic distal esophagomyotomy, esophagectomy and resection of the esophagus "en block". Among esophageal tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, less commonly adenocarcinoma, is most common.
- Esophagus Features
The esophagus in young children has a fusiform shape, it is narrow and short. In a newborn, its length is only 10 cm, in children in 1 year of life - 12 cm, in 10 years - 18 cm. Its width, respectively, is 7 years old - 8 mm, at 12 years old - 15 mm. There are no glands on the mucous membrane of the esophagus. It has thin walls, poor development of muscle and elastic tissues, and is well supplied with blood.
- Peptic ulcer of the esophagus
- A variety of esophagitis, often combined with cholelithiasis and gastroduodenal ulceration, accompanied by cardia insufficiency, due to the cup of the entire hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Diagnostic criteria 1) Pain behind the sternum, worse after eating, when swallowing, in a prone position; 2) dysphagia; 3) heartburn, belching, regurgitation of gastric contents; 4) complications:
- Esophagus (problems)
The esophagus is the part of the digestive tract between the larynx and the stomach. The esophagus passes through the neck, chest and diaphragm. The following diseases are characteristic of it; DIVERTICULITIS, HERNIA, OR CONGENITAL DEFECTS. Pain in the esophagus can be caused by a foreign object in it or the sensation that a foreign object is in it. Since the esophagus is the beginning of the digestive tract,
The normal esophagus is a hollow, well-stretched muscle tube extending from level VI of the cervical vertebra to level XI or XII of the thoracic vertebrae. These levels correspond to the transition of the pharynx to the esophagus and esophageal-gastric connection. In newborns, the esophagus has a length of 10-12 cm, and in adults - 23-25 cm. There are three anatomical narrowing of the esophagus, which lasts for
- Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus
The esophagus (oesophagus) is a continuation of the pharynx from the level of the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage (VI cervical vertebra). The esophagus passes into the stomach at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra. The esophagus is a tube flattened in the anteroposterior direction 24-25 cm long. Three sections are distinguished in the esophagus: 1. Cervical. 2. Thoracic. 3. The abdominal. In the cervical and early thoracic
- Blockage of the esophagus
Most often found in kittens, which during the game can swallow plastic or rubber toys or their pieces. In adult cats, blockage of the esophagus is extremely rare, usually due to excessively greedy eating of food. Symptoms: the first signs of an esophageal blockage are restless behavior, the cat twists its head, twitches, scratches its mouth, coughs, can be observed
- Esophageal atresia
DEFINITION Atresia of the esophagus is a malformation in which the proximal and distal ends of the esophagus do not communicate with each other. CODE ICD-Q39.0 Atresia of the esophagus without fistula. Q39.1 Atresia of esophagus with tracheoesophageal fistula. Q39.2 Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula without atresia EPIDEMIOLOGY Among newborns with esophageal atresia, about 30% are premature. CLASSIFICATION Accepted