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“Crises of disappointment” and the main stages of development of a professional psychologist

Contrary to ordinary ideas, psychologists treat crises not only with “understanding”, but also with “respect”. The well-known statement of L. S. Vygotsky that “if there were no crises, they should have been invented on purpose, otherwise development cannot be explained in any way

personality of a child ”, applies not only to developmental psychology, but also to psychologists of becoming a professional.

Moreover, crises have two main possible "outcomes":

1) a crisis can contribute to personal development;

2) a crisis can lead to personal degradation, when a person cannot cope with his internal contradictions and these contradictions literally “corrode” a person from within (and if external adverse circumstances are added to this, then the crisis can end sadly).

Thus, the main thing is to learn how to identify crises in time and manage them.

The crisis itself is a kind of “chance” for a person to become better, and for a professional, to move on to the next stage of their development, because it is not for nothing that it says that each subsequent stage of development should be “suffered” (or “deserved”) by a person. And vice versa, if a person somehow (“undeservedly”) finds himself at the subsequent stage of his development, then he himself and those around him (relatives, colleagues or clients) usually have to pay for it. With regard to professional development, a witty remark can be made.

B. P. Zinchenko: “Each stage must exhaust itself, then it will provide favorable conditions for the transition to a new stage and will remain for life. The official stupidity of an official is explained by game dystrophy in childhood ”(V.P. Zynchenko, 1995. -

C. 50).

For a future psychologist, the problem is to skillfully use the energy of his crisis (crisis of educational and professional development) and direct it into a constructive direction. Perhaps the formation of such a skill in a psychology student is an even more important result of training at the Faculty of Psychology than all the knowledge and other skills combined. Although formally the learning outcome is expressed in

Zinchenko Vladimir Petrovich - doctor of psychological sciences, professor, academician of the Russian Academy of Education, author of more than 300 scientific papers. One of the leading experts in the field of theory and methodology, developmental psychology, psychology of cognitive processes, engineering psychology.

examination grades, tests, in protected term papers and dissertations, and we, of course, do not argue with this ...

An even more interesting option for considering the crisis of professional development is not just the “use” of the energy of the crisis, but also the constant search for yourself of complex problems that need to be somehow solved, that is, a kind of construction, design, crisis planning, or, to put it another way, "Building" for themselves the "chances" of professional development, and not just "waiting" for these "chases". As you know, a creative person is characterized by constant restlessness when he constantly searches for more and more (more and more interesting) problems and, by solving them, really realizes and develops his creative potential. But are psychology students fully prepared for such educational and professional creativity? And if not, do you need to deceive yourself and, thus, significantly complicate your life for yourself? But that is the beauty of studying at a higher educational institution, that the student himself must make a decision regarding overcoming or not overcoming another crisis, as well as regarding searching for himself more and more new problems ...

The crises of professional development themselves can also be regarded as constant “disappointments” (“crises of disappointment”) in various aspects of one’s training and future work. But the most painful “disappointment” is disappointment in oneself, the student’s insecurity that he has chosen the right profession, that he will turn out to be a real professional, etc. In fact, this is the very “chance” for the personal development of a future specialist who and must be used for real.

As various researchers of professional development (EF Zeer, B. Livehud, G. Shihi, etc.) note, it is the change in the "I-concept", the change (or restructuring) of the hierarchy of life and professional values ​​that underlie many crises of professional becoming. But how difficult it is to revise those values ​​and meanings that until recently seemed so “important” and “solid”, although almost every young person (and young specialist) has to do this painful work to one degree or another.

Often young specialists desperately resist the prospect of changing an already established view of the world around them, their profession and, most importantly, themselves, their place in this world and in this profession. The best way to protect yourself from this prospect is not to be disappointed in yourself, but in the world around you, including disappointment in your profession and in your school (in your alma mater). Conventionally, we can distinguish approximately the following options of “defense-disappointments”:

1. Disappointment in their once beloved teachers (at some stage, the student suddenly “finds out” for himself that the teacher is also an ordinary person, with the usual set of weaknesses and shortcomings). Although in the first courses of study, many students see (really want to see) a model of excellence and an example to follow.

2. Disappointment in the subject being studied (in individual psychological disciplines or in all psychology at once). Suddenly, the student "understands" for himself that the psychology with which he met through popular books or television shows, in fact, is not so "entertaining and entertaining" and generally "boring."

3. Disappointment in their educational institution when a student suddenly “finds out” that in other institutions teachers are better (“more solid” and “more interesting”), and libraries are better, and social and cultural life is organized more interesting, and sports competitions, and internships abroad, and KVNy, and girls-boys are prettier, etc. In its own way, the student may be right, but, as you know, “it's good where we are not.” A student’s creative position could be manifested in the fact that some problems, for example, related to the organization of leisure and “entertainment,” can be solved by one’s own student forces.

4. Disappointment in the prospects for their future work. The student suddenly realized that, most likely, he would not be able to “get good” and “profitable” in his specialty, or that he would have to be content with a very small income for a long time, because, as you know, psychologists do not earn much, especially in a market economy.

In this regard, it is appropriate to cite the statement of one foreign economist and sociologist, Ludwig von Mises, who, speaking about the values ​​and advantages of a market economy, frankly explains: “If you prefer wealth that you could achieve by trading in clothes or doing professional boxing, satisfaction from engaging in poetry or philosophy is your right. But then, naturally, you will not earn as much as the one who will serve the majority will earn, for such is the law of economic democracy of the market ”(Ludwig von Mises, 1993. - S. 174). But since psychology, like philosophy with poetry, is related to creative (and even noble) types of activity, this statement of Ludwig von Mises is quite applicable to the work of many psychologists. Although, of course, it’s not enough to earn a lot of money, and if the psychologist is offended by this, then everything is in order with self-esteem. Well, if the dignity of a student psychologist or a young specialist tells him that money is still more important, then he can think about professional boxing, clothes trading, and other “profitable” activities (according to L. von Mises).

Based on observations of students and already working specialists, we can conditionally distinguish the following stages of professional development of psychologists:

1. Enthusiastic and romantic, when the psychologist has not yet “grown up” to serious “disappointments”.
This, in its own way, is a wonderful and even necessary stage for subsequent development - it is a kind of “base”, an emotional “rear”, which creates a special, unforgettable “atmosphere” of the first acquaintance with psychology. And the "atmosphere" in our life, as you know, is worth a lot ...

2. The stage of self-affirmation, when soon you want to “learn something like that” or master some “exotic technique”. Also a very important and necessary stage - this is the basis of future professional pride and self-esteem.

3. The first disappointments, and then there will be subsequent ones, about which much has already been written above. These are the most critical stages. Since the main question is being solved here: will a student psychologist learn to overcome these "crises of disappointment" or they will simply "break" him. Recall that the most important condition for overcoming such crises is the search for new personal meanings in learning and in subsequent work. We also note that these meanings can only be found on their own, because only then can they become "personal."

4. The beginning of an independent solution of certain psychological problems (theoretical or practical) using already known technologies and methods. This stage ends with a gradual accumulation of negative experience in using these technologies and attempts to work somehow differently (the beginning of real professional creativity and the formation of one's individual style of activity).

5. The first serious attempts to work in a new way. Often, these attempts also end in “self-disappointment” and the desire to still bring their ideas to perfection.

Often at this stage an interesting “epiphany” comes: the student suddenly “understands” (finally) that for creative work and improvisation in his work it turns out that he needs a good knowledge of psychological theory and methodology ...

6. An appeal to the theoretical and methodological foundations of psychology, that is, to everything that at the stage of study at a university, many students usually cause a frank “allergy”.

7. Improvisation and professional creativity is already based on an updated theoretical and methodological base, where theory and practice, science and art are organically combined.

Naturally, not all psychologists go through the "full cycle" of such development, many simply "get stuck" at some stages, that is, they simply stop in their professional development.

For example, a psychologist was “stuck” at an ecstatic-romantic stage (in a sense, such psychologists can even be envied, because they see everything in a “pink light” and ... no “disappointments”).

Such psychologists can even be of some benefit: they will everywhere affirm faith in the "omnipotence" of psychological science and practice. With such psychologists, different clients, customers, and even those psychologists who painfully overcome their professional development crises feel easily and confidently, because an enthusiastic and romantic mood is, first of all, a mood of optimism and lightness, which is so much lacking (including and serious professional psychologists).

In no case should one condemn such psychologists “stuck” in their development: it means that they have found a certain meaning for themselves in their work and they simply do not need to look for any more complex and risky meanings. Perhaps, over time, they will continue their creative search, or maybe they will not continue - this is their right to choose!

Finally, we can outline another possible line of professional development of psychologists. The main thing here is a gradual change in the main emphasis on certain subjects of their activity. Conventionally, we can distinguish the following main stages in shifting the main emphasis in the search for the main subject of our activity:

1. Initially, this is an orientation to the existing traditional problems of psychology (for theoretical psychologists) or to the problems of psychological clients served by clients. The main thing here is to show your ability to solve these problems and, thus, prove your "usefulness" to others. Usually here the main attention is paid to the knowledge of various psychological "realities", often understood as "objective realities", that is, independent of the subjective and worldview position of the psychologist himself. At this stage of his development, the psychologist does not like to talk about morality and professional conscience or understands this conscience too simplistically (“do no harm!”, “Do not offend the client”, “do not rig the objective facts”, etc.).

2. Gradually comes the understanding that in many respects the effectiveness of research or the effectiveness of practical assistance depends on the research methods. At this stage, the focus is gradually shifting from psychological realities (from research objects and clients) to the methods themselves. At the same time, the psychologist more and more thinks not only about finding and using methods, but also about their modification and even about their independent design. Here the principle is mastered: what are the methods - such are the results. As a result, everything is focused on solving problems (research or practical), that is, on the interests of the same client, but the main emphasis is still changing. Moreover, at this stage, the psychologist begins to realize that the results themselves (the “truth”) also largely depend on the methods used, that is, the psychological reality no longer appears to be purely “objective” and independent of anything.

3. At the third stage, the psychologist gradually “dares” to rely more and more on his own work and on his own intuition. And to their worldview (moral) position, which becomes more important than even research methods or methods of practical assistance to the client. It is not without reason that E. A. Klimov wrote that a method is “a combination of external means of a psychologist’s professional activity .. supplemented by the professional skill of the person who applies this technique” (see Klimov E. A., 1998. - P. 207-208) . But besides the traditionally understood “professional excellence”, the general cultural level and the moral position of a professional play an important role, which is especially important in the humanitarian professions, which nevertheless include psychology. At this stage, the psychologist thinks more and more about his personality, about how his personality influences labor efficiency and how work affects the personality development itself. At the same time, more and more professionals are beginning to worry about the meaning of their professional activities, especially since it is the meaning that is the core of personal and professional development.

4. Finally, the psychologist thinks more and more about his "mission", about his "mission" and "calling." Not only specific working methods, but also all professional activities are considered only as “means” of this “mission”. Here, the professional is actually outgrowing the traditional framework of his profession and is striving not only to solve any specific problems, but also to contribute to the universal culture. This is how he begins to relate to his specific work with specific clients, considering even the most

“Small” and “insignificant” matters as a contribution to social progress and cultural development. As V.E. Chudnovsky writes, “the problem of the meaning of life is, above all, a problem

Chudnovsky Vilen Emmanuilovich - Doctor of Psychology, professor, specialist in the field of psychology of the spiritual and moral development of personality.

"Quality" of life, and not its scale "(V. E. Chudnovsky 1997.- S. 103).

The distinguished stages of the development of a professional psychologist are to some extent correlated with the stages of development of intrascientific reflection: from ontologism oriented to cognition of objective truth - to epistemology, oriented toward cognition of cognitive means - to methodology oriented toward production (and even “industry” ») Of these funds (see Zinchenko, Smirnov, 1983. - S. 11-12). Probably, there is something in common in the development of a specific professional and in the development of a specific science (or scientific direction).
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