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Research methods and organization

In the theoretical part of the thesis, we considered the current state of knowledge of the stated research topic. It has been found that in foreign and domestic psychology the degree of knowledge of the problem of the professional orientation of the personality is, on the one hand, rather high; on the other, there are quite serious difficulties with the conceptual apparatus and the formation of a general harmonious theory.

In the process of forming research tasks, it became necessary to conduct an experimental study in order to confirm the hypothesis of a thesis. Now, in the practical part, combining objective and subjective research methods, we find out that if self-esteem has different levels of formation, then this should be reflected in the level of professional orientation of the student.

We examined 55 fifth-year students of the Faculty of Psychology of Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University. The subjects were motivated to participate in the study by receiving feedback in the form of providing results to each subject and the necessary explanations. The level of concentration of the subjects can be characterized as sufficient, since the study took place in the interval from 9 to 14 hours.

1) As a diagnostic tool, revealing the level of professional orientation, we used the methodology for diagnosing the level of professional orientation of students, developed by T.D. Dubovitskaya (Appendix 1).

The essence of the psychodiagnostic procedure was that the subjects were asked to answer a test questionnaire, which consists of 20 judgments and the proposed answer options that allows you to determine the level of students' professional orientation, expressed in the desire to master the profession and the desire to work on it.

High test results indicate that the student is committed to mastering a chosen profession, he likes the profession; he wants to work in the future and further improve in this profession; in his free time he is engaged in affairs related to the future profession; has a circle of acquaintances - specialists in the field of the chosen profession; considers his profession a matter of his life.

Low indicators indicate that the student is forced to study at this faculty; admission to this university is not due to interest in a future profession and a desire to work in the specialty received, but to other reasons; he does not see anything good for himself in his future profession; wants, if possible, to change it, get another specialty and work on it.

2) To study self-esteem in the work, the following methodology was used: Test questionnaire “Your self-esteem” by B. I. Dodonov (Appendix 3). The proposed technique allows to identify self-esteem. Here, a person can evaluate himself, his abilities, qualities and places among other people, conditionally and unconditionally. Self-esteem refers to the basic personality traits. It is she who largely determines the relationship with others, criticality, exactingness for oneself, attitude to success and failure.

Experience with the test questionnaire shows that this technique is a fairly reliable and informative tool for identifying self-esteem.

Test - questionnaire, consists of 32 judgments, for which there are five possible answers, each of which is encoded by points according to the scheme.

Test progress: The test subject is asked to answer test questions in accordance with the attached instructions. Five answers are possible for each of the judgments according to the degree of intensity (very often, often, sometimes, rarely, never). The instructions on the questionnaire usually do not require any further clarification or comment. The survey is carried out individually or in groups. We chose this text because it is easy to assimilate tasks, does not require special preparation, does not take much time to conduct, this test already offers a system of pre-thought out questions, the answers to which make a conclusion on the psychological qualities of the subjects.

The choice of these two methods is determined by the topic, purpose and hypothesis of the study, according to which we determine the presence or absence of a relationship between self-esteem and professional orientation.

The next stage was the mathematical and statistical processing of the obtained data, allowing us to draw a conclusion on the problem of interest to us.
Quantitative analysis of the data was carried out in the Microsoft Excel program and was implemented by calculating the degree of consistency of changes in characteristics using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS).

The selection of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is based on the recommendation of E. V. Sidorenko [52, p. 32], which, considering the classification of psychological problems and methods for solving them, suggests this criterion to identify the degree of coordination of changes.

Due to the fact that the experimental data obtained using the methods of T. D. Dubovitskaya and B. I. Dodonov are presented in an ordinal scale (this scale classifies attributes based on the criterion “more - less”), they should be ranked. Note that for the data to be presented in the interval scale, it is necessary that this scale be graduated in units of standard deviation [52, P. 15]. The scales of T. D. Dubovitskaya and B. I. Dodonov do not satisfy this condition. The ranked data make it possible to use the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the value of which is the basis for fixing the presence or absence of a relationship between the students' examined qualities. A particular value of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient characterizes the tightness of the relationship between the characters, which can be estimated on the Chaddock scale [36, p. 78] (Table 1)

Table 1

Chaddock scale for assessing the tightness of the relationship between parameters

The non-zero value of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient does not mean yet that the relationship between the evaluated attributes is statistically significant. To assess the reliability of this coefficient, t - student criterion is used. It should be noted that the use of Student's t-test for assessing the reliability of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient without any restrictions is permissible only when the data are quantitative (i.e., presented on the scale of equal relations). For high-quality data when applying t-student criterion, it is necessary that the conditions of normality of the first and second distributions of ranked data are provided, as well as the requirement of equality of their variances [36, C. 80].

Therefore, the next step in the mathematical processing of experimental data is to verify the above conditions. In this case, to test the hypothesis of normality of the distribution, the Pearson criterion? 2 is used [16, p. 251]. Testing the hypothesis of equality of variances is implemented using the Fisher criterion [16, p. 207].

After accepting the hypotheses about the normality of the distribution of ranked data and the equality of their variances t, Student's test allows us to conclude that the statistical significance (or lack of statistical significance) of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

Note that, in general, the reliability and reliability of the correlation conclusions of the experimental study were provided by the following factors.

1. The requirement of uniformity of objects was observed. This was achieved by simultaneously performing all measurements and observing a strict sequence of filling out questionnaires.

2. The requirement of a sufficient number of observations was observed. The total number of observations is 55.

3. The reliability of the correlation coefficient was assessed using t - student criterion.

In the next section, we present the empirical results of the psychological data studied.
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