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Theoretical analysis of the problem of professional orientation in psychological literature
In general psychological theories of personality, orientation acts as a quality that determines its psychological makeup. In different concepts, this characteristic is revealed in different ways:
- "dynamic trend";
- "sense-forming motive";
- "main life orientation";
- "dynamic organization of the" essential forces of "man", etc.
But no matter how this personality characteristic is revealed, in all concepts it is given leading importance.
Almost all psychologists understand the orientation of the personality as the totality or system of any motivational formations, phenomena. In B. I. Dodonov, this is a system of needs; K.K. Platonov - a set of drives, desires, interests, inclinations, ideals, worldviews, beliefs; among L. I. Bozhovich and R. S. Nemov — a system or set of motives, etc. However, an understanding of the personality orientation as a totality or a system of motivational formations is only one side of its essence. The other side is that this system determines the direction of a person’s behavior and activities, orientates him, determines the tendencies of behavior and actions and, ultimately, determines the person’s image in social terms. The latter is due to the fact that the orientation of the personality is a stably dominant system of motives, or motivational formations, i.e. reflects the dominant becoming a vector of behavior.
The orientation of the personality, as V.S. Merlin notes, can manifest itself in relation to other people, to society, to oneself. M.S. Neymark, for example, singled out the personal, collectivist and business orientation of the individual.
The identification of the types of orientation shows that it can be determined not by a complex of some factors, but only by one of them, for example, a personal or collectivist attitude, etc. In the same way, the orientation of the personality can be determined by any one overly developed interest. Thus, the structure of an individual’s orientation can be simple and complex, but the main thing in it is the steady dominance of a need, an interest, as a result of which a person "aggressively seeks means to arouse within himself the necessary experiences as often and as strongly as possible."
At the same time, reducing a person’s orientation simply to needs, interests, worldview, conviction or ideals is unlawful. Only the steady dominance of needs or interests, acting as long-term motivational attitudes, can form the core line of life. In this regard, we note that the properties inherent in the operational motivational installation that determine the willingness and specific ways of behavior and actions of a person in this situation are not enough to consider it one of the types of personality orientation. Directs actions and activities, and any goal. The attitude should become steadily dominant, and social attitudes associated with interpersonal and personal-social relations, attitudes toward work, etc. Thus, he concludes that the orientation of the personality in the motivational process attracts and directs human activity, i.e. to some extent, facilitates decision-making on actions in this situation.
So, having examined the orientation of the personality in the context of general psychological approaches, we need to more specifically and see the orientation of the personality in the field of professional activity.
E. Seeer defines a professional orientation as one of the most important personality characteristics, which allows one to predict its future and is a combination of the most important target programs that determine the semantic unity of an active and purposeful personality development [18; P.27].
According to E. Seeer, a professional orientation is a system of emotionally valuable relationships, which, according to their content, determine the hierarchical structure of the dominant motives of the personality and encourage the individual to affirm them in their professional activities. The formation of a specialist occurs through his focused, specially organized training within the walls of the university. A student’s academic success, expressed in grades in blocks of academic disciplines, can serve as a criterion for the effectiveness of professional development. The coincidence of the motivational structure of the personality, which determines the attitude to the chosen professional activity, and the subject content of the curriculum is one of the defining moments of successful professional development of a specialist even at the stage of study at a university.
Scientists S. L. Rubinstein, L. I. Bozhovich define orientation as a system of persistently dominant motives ; G. M. Kodzhaspirova and A. Yu. Kodjaspirov adhere to the same opinion ("The orientation of the personality is a set of stable motives that are independent of the situation and orient the behavior and activities of the individual" [19; P. 91]), A. V. Petrovsky and M. G. Yaroshevsky (the orientation of the personality is “a set of stable motives that orient the activity of the personality and are relatively independent of present situations” [44; P. 230]). V. N. Myasishchev, P. M. Jacobson's orientation is associated with the dominant attitude of the individual towards the world, people around him and himself [35; S. 30]. BC Merlin, NI Makarov, ND Levitov, etc. - with mental properties that determine human activity, its general direction in various specific circumstances. BC Merlin notes that such mental properties as the orientation of the personality are not only necessary, but also sufficient to determine the direction and content of social labor activity [41; S.288]. M. G. Reznichenko, specifying the definition of orientation, calls it the motivational conditioning of a person’s actions, his actions, behavior associated with specific life goals, the sources of which are needs, social requirements for his personality [52; S.22].
Thus, orientation can be understood as a set of stable motives, caused by value orientations and relationships of the individual.
Modern authors consider orientation as a separate side of the personality, its integrative property.
In the opinion of G. L. Smirnov, E. A. Shumilin, the orientation is the typological characteristic of the personality, which defines and illustrates its relationship to its main social roles and, in general, the social essence of man.
A. Seiteshev, C. L. Rubinstein, BC Merlin, T. E. Konnikova, E. G. Yudin, B. F. Lomov, V. N. Myasischev, speak of orientation, that it is a personality quality that provides and appropriation goals of society, and the development of their own goals of life, that is, it is the meaning-forming structure of the individual.
According to B.F. Lomov, E. G. Yudin, and BC Merlin, “the orientation of the personality is a system of internal conditions that mediate the refraction of all external influences, as a result of which the internalization of social experience takes place and the relative stability of the individual is maintained.”
S. L. Rubinstein, A. Seyteshev defines orientation as the activity of the person in relation to others and to himself, the tendency of behavior, activity and communication of a person.
The above characteristics help to clarify the essence of orientation, but they do not allow to unambiguously and fully determine its structure, therefore, we supplement them with a description of some functions that the orientation performs in relation to the individual.
The integral directional function, manifested in such an interaction of its elements that "causes the emergence of new integrative qualities that are not peculiar to the individual components of the system. The connection between the components of the system is so close, significant that a change in one of them causes a change in the others, and often the system in whole "[1; S. 19]. This characteristic is manifested, in particular, in those cases when, for example, a change in the value orientations of a person leads to a change in the strength and vector of its motivation for activity. The orientation of the personality as a system is formed as a result of the integration of various personal qualities, the composition of which A. V. Petrovsky and M. G. Yaroshevsky, for example, include interests, inclinations, beliefs, ideals, "in which a person’s worldview is expressed" [42; S. 230]. It is characterized by the fact that in it the internal connections between the components prevail over the external influences of the environment [7; S. 123]. Therefore, in order to achieve the necessary changes in the orientation of the personality, external influences should be translated into internal ones, and the individual should be internalized with external goals.
The backbone function is that the orientation provides internal consistency, the integrity of the individual.
That is why a person, on the one hand, is extremely difficult to internalize the goals of his activity and is reluctant to carry out actions that do not correspond to his focus, and, on the other hand, is able to make titanic efforts to develop the qualities and abilities necessary for him to achieve success in work that meets his focus personality. Thus, by correcting and purposefully developing the orientation of the personality, one can achieve the actualization of the essential forces of man and stimulate the processes of his self-improvement.
The function of goal formation is that the direction sets the vector of the development of the personality, is the source of its expectations, since the goal, in fact, is that perspective, the result for which the person lives and acts. In the event that a person consciously, on the basis of his own interests and inclinations, determines the goal of life for himself, he does not need significant external incentives for the manifestation of activity. “The goal-forming function of orientation ensures the development of personality in professional work, in preparation for it” [7, p. 142].
The most important function of orientation is selectivity, which characterizes it “from the point of view of a person’s relationship to himself and to society” [32; S. 8], and ensuring the development of personality personality. Thanks to selectivity, a person gives one or another status, degree of significance to various phenomena, processes and objects of the world around him, depending on their relationship with the established ideal, on how they contribute to or impede the achievement (implementation) of the ideal. So, if the content (or results) of an activity does not meet a person’s life goals, does not contribute to the achievement of an “ideal” result, then such activity loses its attractiveness in the eyes of the subject. Almost all scientists believe that the system of value relations is the core, a system-forming element of personality orientation.
The search function for the missing elements determines the actualization of the motives of human activity in their quantitative (strength) and vector (direction, content of activities) aspects. Thanks to this function, orientation is defined as an internal motivator, a determinant of human constant self-improvement [2; S. 115].
Generalized characteristics and directivity functions allow a more generalized and comprehensive definition of the structure of the personality’s directivity, conditionally highlighting the following integrative components in it:
a) goal-setting, value-orientational, motivational — the allocation of these components directly follows from the essence and personality orientation functions;
b) as a semantic structure that determines the activity of the personality and the tendencies of its behavior and activity, the orientation should also include a component that is “responsible” for the general orientation of the “movement” of the personality (in contrast to values and goals that substantively specify the vector of human activity) - let’s name it semantic, reflecting the dominant aspiration of the individual, for example, to wealth, to maximum self-realization, to creative recognition, professional success, etc.
“Professional orientation is the leading property of a professional’s personality, especially the system of his motivations to use his forces and abilities in his chosen profession” [49, p. 279], it is “the desire of the individual to become, be and remain a teacher, helping her overcome the obstacle and difficulties in his work” [20; S. 91]. Most scientists define it as a set of stable motives and emotional-value relationships that determine the characteristics of professional activity, behavior, communication and self-esteem of a specialist’s personality; its content also includes the need for professional activity and value orientations as the basis for motivating this activity, the goals of professional activity and the need for continuous professional self-improvement [52; P.55].
The professional orientation of the personality is a category that is the subject of research simultaneously of several sciences: philosophy, psychology, sociology and pedagogy. The problem of studying the professional orientation of the personality is quite complex, since it is at the junction of the psychology of labor, pedagogical psychology, pedagogy, developmental psychology, and personality psychology. The professional orientation of the personality, manifested as the dominant desire of the individual for activity, has become the subject of our study. The article summarizes the data existing on the problems of the professional orientation of the personality, as well as the results of author's research and observations related to the formation and development of the professional orientation in the process of education of the personality of students. On the one hand, the aspects of vocational guidance and professional self-determination in recent years in connection with the change in socio-economic relations and the emergence of the labor market have gained particular relevance. On the other hand, the choice of a profession is an important decision that must be taken by every person at a young age. In addition to social, there are a number of psychological reasons for the importance of choosing a profession. Everyone needs recognition from others and wants to be appreciated, seeking approval, love and independence. One way to achieve this is to choose a profession that would distinguish it in the eyes of others and bring him emotional satisfaction, give a stable material income. The desire to achieve greater success in professional activity is a consequence of a high level of self-esteem and contributes to the affirmation of self-esteem of the individual. In adolescence, each young man constantly strives to reveal his personality, therefore the problem of choosing a profession, the motivation for this choice, methods of self-realization and self-development of the senior pupil’s personality in professional activity become very important for him at this age [38; S. 11-25].
Professional orientation is the leading integral quality of personality, manifested in the student’s selective and motivated attitude to the choice of profession in accordance with his vocation and ideals.
At the external level, a professional orientation can manifest itself as a socio-psychological attitude toward a certain type of activity, the adoption of its goals and objectives on the basis of the formed need for professional knowledge, expressed in a willingness to make a professional choice.
Thus, the professional orientation is not given to the person from birth, but develops in the process of her life under the influence of various factors of the objective and subjective plan. It is not an absolutely independent personality formation, but one of the types of general orientation, which is considered in sufficient detail in the scientific literature. The process of developing the professional orientation of the student’s personality is long, it consists of 4 stages, at each of which desire, attitude, interests, inclinations and other components play a very important role. To ensure the movement of a professional orientation from one step to another, it is necessary to improve the educational and pedagogical process itself [47. P.206].
The orientation of the personality by modern scientists is understood as the motivational conditioning of a person’s actions and actions with specific life goals, the sources of which are both his basic needs and society’s requirements for his personality. Note that there are various definitions of the concept of "focus." So, S. Rubinstein defined the orientation of the personality as its “dynamic tendency”. The scientist believed that the nature of a person manifests itself in activity, which receives expression in the direction of his actions and actions, his temperament and ability, which, in turn, determine the perfection of performance [46; S. 129]. А. Н. Леонтьев сопоставлял понятие направленности личности как «смыслообразующий мотив» в то время как Б. Г. Ананьев указывал на существование «основной жизненной направленности» личности. Однако чаще всего в научной литературе под направленностью понимают совокупность устойчивых мотивов, ориентирующих деятельность личности и относительно независимых от сложившейся ситуации
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