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Questionnaire survey as a method of studying socio-psychological processes in military groups

The most common method of studying social processes in large groups of military personnel, military collectives is a survey. There are two types of survey: questioning and interviewing.

The specificity of the questionnaire is that communication between the researcher and the respondent, which is the source of the necessary information, is mediated by the questionnaire.

The advantages of collecting information using questionnaires is the cost-effectiveness and speed of data collection. It is especially effective if you need to obtain qualitative and quantitative indicators on the scale of the troops of the district, formations, units. It is important to note that the questionnaire survey is most adequate to the adoption of medium-term and long-term management decisions on the impact on certain processes in military units and divisions.

The disadvantages of the questionnaire include the impossibility of a comprehensive analysis of the processes of perception and understanding of the questions of the questionnaire, the technique of filling it out, formulating answers, accuracy and completeness of registration, attitude to the survey, sincerity of the respondent’s response. All this leads to a possible decrease in the quality of information received: the appearance of insincere answers, an increase in the percentage of unanswered, the appearance of systematic errors due to an incorrect interpretation of the questions posed.

An experienced researcher minimizes possible negative consequences for the final information obtained using questionnaires in the following ways:

- careful development of the questionnaire, starting from the wording of questions, answer options, the type of scales proposed;

- conducting a pilot (aerobatic) survey in a small volume (up to 50 people) and finalizing issues that “did not work”;

- a thorough briefing of the persons who will conduct the survey; at the same time, it is necessary to ensure that they are all able to explain the meaning of a particular question without the “clue” of the answer;

- increase in the volume of respondents for further culling of incorrectly completed questionnaires.

When developing a questionnaire, not only its content is important, but also the graphic design, placement of questions, their wording, etc.

The introductory part of the questionnaire contains the name of the military command and control body that conducts the survey, the conditional name of the study, the number of the questionnaire and an appeal to the respondents. The task of the introductory part is to create a positive attitude to participate in the survey, to arouse interest in the effectiveness of the survey for the situation. As a rule, an appeal contains information about the purpose of the survey, the importance of sincerity in the answers, and the conditions for ensuring the anonymity of the filling.

The main part of the questionnaire contains questions, usually by degree of difficulty. When filling in simple questions, the interviewee overcomes his constraint and begins to understand the technique of answers.
By the middle of the questionnaire, the complexity of the questions increases and then decreases by the end, since it is necessary to take into account a certain fatigue of the respondents, a decrease in interest in the survey. Questions can be grouped into thematic groups (for example, concerning service, life, mood in the team).

It is important to know and fulfill some of the requirements for wording questions:

- Avoid complex language constructs and verbose, logically incorrect and fuzzy formulations;

- do not use words that may not be included in the language reserve of the respondents;

- not to allow humiliation of national, religious and other feelings of the respondents;

- questions should not contain hints, create attitudes to these or those answers (the turnovers “aren't they right ...”, “the majority thinks that ...”, etc. are inadmissible);

- the rules for filling and registering answers should be contained in the text of the questions (indications of the number of answer options, how to mark the answer that matches the opinion of the respondent).

The final part of the questionnaire usually contains a socio-biographical block of questions clarifying the personality characteristics of the respondent. Survey ethics require that the end of the questionnaire be thankful for participating in the survey.

When designing a questionnaire, the researcher needs to imagine the way in which he will process the questionnaire. As a rule, “at the exit” processed questionnaires can be presented in the form of the following qualitative and quantitative characteristics:

- the number of answers (usually in percentage) to one or another option (for example: “75.3% of respondents expressed their readiness to perform tasks in a state of emergency”);

- grouping (distribution) of answer options by groups of respondents (for example: “with a total of 75.3% who declared their readiness to perform military-combat missions, their share among servicemen who came from a training center is half that - 37%”);

- generalized averaged data for all answers to the question

- giving examples of detailed answers that carry, as a rule, an emotional assessment

Due to the fact that the generalized factual material is difficult to comprehend and generalize without preliminary transformation, it is a good idea to illustrate them with diagrams, diagrams, tables when preparing an analysis of the survey results.

A questionnaire survey, subject to the above rules for its conduct and design of questionnaires, is a fairly reliable and effective means of studying not only public opinion in military collectives, but also all parameters of these teams, based on the goals and objectives of the research set forth in paragraphs. 3.2.
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Questionnaire survey as a method of studying socio-psychological processes in military groups

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