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The effectiveness of military-patriotic education and its criteria

Determining the essence of the effectiveness of military-patriotic education, a comprehensive examination of its content and structure is important. The solution to this problem expands the boundaries of scientific knowledge of the educational process itself, equips practitioners with general methodological principles for evaluating its effectiveness, contributes to the development of uniform, specific indicators by which it is most likely to judge the optimal functioning of the system in question. This is all the more important since there are still no special works devoted to the analysis of this problem.

Often, the effectiveness of military-patriotic education is determined only by the results of preparing young people for service in the Armed Forces, which greatly distorts the overall picture, deforms it, because such an important element as military service is excluded from the "effectiveness zone". Often the effectiveness of the impact on the formation of the defense, heroic-patriotic consciousness of the youth, instilling in it the necessary qualities of an armed defender of the Fatherland is established on a departmental basis, that is, the effectiveness of the efforts of any one subject of education is determined. Moreover, in many cases, the effectiveness of the system is judged by the successful, albeit important, but episodic events or large-scale military-patriotic campaigns. Such a shift or substitution of one concept for another does not contribute to the improvement of the educational process, it greatly complicates the assessment of performance, and, consequently, improvement in the future.

It is known that the system of military-patriotic education is a complex organization, consisting of a number of subsystems, and can be evaluated:

- based on the results of individual military-patriotic events;

- the effectiveness of this particular subsystem;

- by the effectiveness of managing the entire system and its components.

When considering the substantive aspect of the effectiveness of military-patriotic education, it is important to keep in mind that all components of the system are in dialectical unity and mutually determine each other. As in any type of activity, the effectiveness of each subsystem of military-patriotic education consists in achieving certain results in accordance with the goals and objectives outlined in advance. A correctly formulated goal contributes to the elimination of spontaneity and volitional decisions in the system of military-patriotic education. It gives birth to a perspective, gives the educational process a planned, informed character. And vice versa, an incorrectly set goal dooms various educational institutions to trample on the spot, blind selection of episodic, spontaneous events, development of decisions of the "fire" order, unsystematic, and ultimately leads to undesirable results.

Consider the above subsystems in more detail. So, the effectiveness of individual military-patriotic events. Everyday educational activities should be built in such a way that each time a specific goal is achieved - young people to obtain certain social information, on the basis of which the necessary qualities (skills) would be formed to protect the homeland. At the same time, education should be such as to ensure the transition to higher levels of personal development. If this goal is achieved each time, then a more complex task will be solved step by step - the achievement of common social goals.

A separate military-patriotic event in and of itself cannot immediately, momentarily form a person’s qualities necessary for an armed defender of his country. Its purpose is mainly to create a platform for the emergence or further improvement of these qualities. Therefore, evaluating the effectiveness of individual events, it is necessary to approach them precisely from these positions. Here, the immediate result can be expressed in the interest of young people in this or that information of a military-patriotic nature, in the particular skills and abilities that they receive at this particular event, in positive or, conversely, negative opinions and statements about it, in the manifestation of initiative in upcoming activities.

Thus, the effectiveness of this particular subsystem of military-patriotic education consists in achieving the dominant, defining goals facing it, expressed in the formation of certain qualities necessary for the armed defense of the Fatherland as an individual individual, as a social group, in the manifestation of these qualities in social behavior .

When determining the effectiveness of managing the system and its components, it should be borne in mind that the main goal of managing the process of military-patriotic education is to ensure the rhythmic, continuous functioning of the entire system as a whole, the coherence and interconnection of all its components, directions and organizational units, and a permanent influence on the formation of youth qualities necessary to protect their homeland. This is achieved by intensive organizational work of all management entities, a high level of coordination of their efforts, and the formation of the ability and responsibility of leaders and organizers of military-patriotic education of youth to conduct the business they are assigned in an organized manner. An important parameter of the effectiveness of managerial activity is a conscious, scientifically substantiated choice of means and forms of educational work with young people, their correct application. And one of the main factors of effectiveness is time, the determination of the real terms for the performance of a particular work, the tasks of military-patriotic education. Every system is more effective, the denser the unit of time.

Summing up the above, we can conclude that the effectiveness of the management of the military-patriotic education system is a rational, optimal organization of all the links in the management of the educational process in strict accordance with the goals that it faces, patterns, trends, phenomena occurring among young people, ensuring rhythmic , continuous and efficient functioning of the whole system as a whole.

The effectiveness of the system of military-patriotic education lies in the full realization of the social goal - to further strengthen the country's defense capability, expressed in the formation of various social groups of workers, and especially the younger generation, of the entire combination of high ideological, moral, psychological, heroic, moral, physical and military professional qualities necessary to fulfill one's patriotic military duty. This makes it possible to proceed to the search for specific indicators, criteria for the educational process.

Taking a careful attitude to the accumulated experience, it is impossible at the same time not to see that now one of the most important requirements of perestroika is to improve the system of performance indicators oriented to the final result. Thus, the determination of the criteria by which one can evaluate the real degree of solving the problems facing various subjects of military-patriotic education is one of the most important problems of Soviet science. In fact: how to measure the effectiveness of educational influences? This question constantly arises for practitioners. You can answer it only on the basis of a deep analysis of the relationship of the work with the main, long-term goals facing the process of education.

So, in its most general form, a system of criteria for the effectiveness of military-patriotic education should be understood as a set of specific indicators that express the measure of achieving certain educational goals that are inextricably linked with the formation of a defense, heroic-patriotic consciousness of youth and other social groups.
This system should orient the activities of one or another subject of upbringing, which strictly coincides with national interests, arouse in him (as well as every person) a keen interest in the real, not imaginary, results of his work, on the use of reserves and creative possibilities, to equally meet the requirements society, team and personality.

With the development of sociological research in our country, the role of quantitative methods for analyzing the effectiveness of various social systems is increasing. At present, specific sociological analysis is based on an increasingly growing base for the implementation of diverse dimensions, the results of which are important both for theory and for public practice.

The use of quantitative indicators in establishing the effectiveness of the system of military-patriotic education has fairly wide borders. With their help, you can characterize the effectiveness of the educational process. With a sufficient degree of probability, for example, one can measure the level of youth’s involvement in the process of military-patriotic education, their activity in this sphere of social and political activity, the degree to which young people master the necessary political and military-professional knowledge. Statistical indicators can also be used in measuring relationships, value orientations, and youth attitudes in the field of upcoming military service.

Other requirements related to the system of criteria in question include the requirement of objectivity.

The most important requirement for the system of criteria under consideration is the requirement of comparability. This means that the set of indicators we define should be comparable with each other, should allow us to compare the effectiveness of educational influences depending on time factors.

Finally, the present system of criteria can be applied to changing the effectiveness of the educational process only when it differs in rationality (accessibility) in the sense of the possibilities of its use by various subjects of management (leadership).

Attaching great importance to particular specific indicators of the effectiveness of various parts of military-patriotic education, we will focus on determining the totality of criteria determined by the ultimate social goal and showing the effectiveness of the system as a whole.

Based on the logic of this reasoning, we can talk about particular indicators of the effectiveness of efforts characterizing:

- the level of worldview, military-political and military-professional knowledge of youth;

- level of military professional skills;

- level of military professional actions;

- the level of beliefs of the personality, its heroic-patriotic consciousness.

It is important to note that each of these indicators should be considered in the following specific conditions:

- in the period before serving in the Armed Forces of Russia;

- during the service in the army and navy;

- in the period after urgent military service.

It is much more difficult to assess the level of beliefs, defense, patriotic consciousness of youth. Penetration into their depths is difficult due to the variability, dynamism, mobility of consciousness, the influence on it of many different internal and external factors and relationships. At the same time, beliefs are by no means an abstract category. They are a combination of specific relationships, social orientations, attitudes in the field of activity of young people in fulfilling their constitutional duty. When assessing the level of beliefs, it is important to pay attention to their relationship with knowledge, because knowledge merged with a certain attitude towards them constitutes beliefs. A person’s true conviction is fundamentally different from blind faith, fanaticism. It is based on a rational basis.

An analysis of the criteria of this group shows that when they are used in practice, at least two difficulties arise. The first of them is the difficulty of isolating the influence on the formation of beliefs (expressed in relationships, interests, orientations) of military-patriotic education, for many other factors are influencing here. Another difficulty is the difficulty of obtaining the necessary social information characterizing the effectiveness of the educational process. A way out of this situation both in the first and second cases can be found only through the application of scientific methods of analysis, further development and expansion of specific logical research.

The determining, main criterion for the effectiveness of the system of military-patriotic education is the level of social behavior of young people in the army, including in combat.

Practical workers - organizers of the process of military-patriotic education, as well as all ideological cadres, always face the question of how to measure the effectiveness of educational efforts with the greatest reliability, what techniques, methods and methods to use?

The scientific methodology for determining the effectiveness of military-patriotic education presupposes, first of all, the choice and formulation of a specific, strictly outlined research task. Having determined the research task and the characteristics of the object of study, we should proceed to clarify the basic concepts and facts that affect the effectiveness of the educational process. The fulfillment of the task depends to a large extent on how carefully this work is carried out. It is also important to build a general picture of the impact on a particular process of objective and subjective factors that reflect the social conditions in which it operates and develops, the dialectic of their relationship both between themselves and with the phenomena studied.

Among the subsequent operations of the methodological plan, it is worth highlighting the development of working hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of a particular component of the system due to a research task. Hypotheses are born both from the existing old, and can arise in the process of research itself.

The next stage in the study of the effectiveness of the system of military-patriotic education is the selection of a set of specific indicators characterizing its effectiveness.

As a rule, the study of effectiveness is closely related to interviewing people, analyzing various documents. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is the optimal determination of the number of observation units. In determining representativeness, the apparatus of mathematical statistics should be actively used.

The next stage in the preparation of a study of the effectiveness of military-patriotic education involves the selection of a set of methods for collecting information characterizing the effectiveness of educational influences. He completes the development of a program for studying the effectiveness of the system under consideration and its individual components. As can be seen from the above, this program is identical to the program of sociological research.

These are the main points of applying scientific methods in the study of the effectiveness of military-patriotic education.
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