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Observation

The observation method is one of the most objective and reliable methods of psychology. It is a purposeful and systematic study of the actions, deeds, behavior in general, attitudes towards service and various phenomena of the surrounding reality in order to detect, register and analyze those facts that can characterize the orientation, character, abilities and other personal qualities of military personnel.

During individual observation, the subject of the examination is the practical actions (actions) of an individual. At the same time, the attitude to military service, the formation of moral, individual psychological and other qualities of a soldier, which are important for the successful completion of military service, are revealed.

The subject of observation can be interpersonal contacts of team members, units, combat crews: their number, duration, character, activity, adaptation, initiative, dominance and other indicators of intra-group interaction.

In addition, observation helps to solve a number of questions of studying the individual characteristics of military personnel (personality orientation, organizational, pedagogical, communicative, leadership, emotional, volitional and other qualities).

To study a soldier by observation method, it is necessary to involve a wide variety of categories of people who have direct contact with him.

To increase the effectiveness of observation, it is recommended to create situations in which a soldier could, to the maximum extent and in a short time, show those qualities that need to be assessed. For example, to set tasks whose solution requires technical, organizational, leadership, emotional-volitional and other qualities.

When determining the attitude to military service, attention should be paid to observing the norms and rules of behavior regulated by the charters of the Armed Forces, fulfilling the daily routine, functional duties, discipline, diligence, and relations with commanders. Information about the character traits, the capabilities of a soldier and the degree of his psychological stability are provided by actions in complex and dangerous situations requiring endurance, self-control and psychological hardening. The speed, accuracy and quality of performing various kinds of standards and tasks in combat and special training make it possible to assess the level of formation of individual psychological qualities.

Observation during a conversation or conducting a psychological examination also makes it possible to identify a number of signs indicating an unsatisfactory level of neuropsychic stability of a military man. Such signs include cheeky behavior, mild irritability, temper, impatience and fussiness, theatricality, demonstrativeness, shyness, isolation, tearfulness, awkwardness, angularity and sharpness of movements, stiff posture, uncomfortable fit, unmotivated movements of arms and legs, frequent blinking, twitching eyelids and cheeks, biting the lips, redness of the skin of the face and neck, excessive sweating. Lack of quick wit and understanding characterize questions not in essence, the expression of confusion and fear, frequent contacting comrades for clarifications, being late, a delay in starting work or stopping it when testing, primitive statements.

There are several varieties of the observation method, depending on: the degree of formalization - controlled and uncontrolled; the degree of participation of the observer in the studied situation - included and not included; conditions of organization - open and hidden; venues - field and laboratory, regularity - systematic and random.

Controlled observation foresees observation situations and specific ways of recording facts.
Most often it is used in studies of a descriptive and experimental plan, when the psychologist is familiar with the phenomenon being studied and he is only interested in descriptive characteristics. For example, when studying the deviating behavior of military personnel from among the replenishment, observation of specific forms of self-distribution of duties between them in the course of official activity, as well as the relationship between them, may be provided.

Uncontrolled surveillance is used to familiarize yourself with the problem. During its implementation, there is no detailed observer action plan; only the most general features of the situation are identified. This type of observation is widely used at the initial stage of the study of personnel and is supplemented by other methods of collecting information.

Open observation involves alerting the observed that they are being monitored. This observation is especially characteristic when forming teams that perform tasks in isolation from the unit. The personnel know in advance that a number of events are being carried out by a psychologist and other officers, including observation, in order to study the psychological compatibility of the team, as well as to identify military personnel with an unsatisfactory level of psychological stability.

Under covert surveillance, servicemen do not know that they are the object of study. This kind of observation is most effective, but can be used in the study of warriors in their free time. In this situation, it is possible to identify the interests and hobbies of individual military personnel, the system of relations in the unit, the presence of microgroups, their focus, informal leaders, outcasts, etc.

Included observation involves the direct participation of a psychologist (observer) in the events. The researcher may not stand out as an observer (covert observation included), carrying out the study of a group of military personnel as if from the inside, which allows him to observe hidden social phenomena. So, when identifying recruiting servicemen with an unsatisfactory level of neuropsychic stability, a psychologist can prepare an experienced sergeant or soldier assigned to work with such a replenishment. In the case of preliminary informing the personnel about the ongoing monitoring, they say that open monitoring is turned on (joint fulfillment of combat training exercises with the observer, sports games, etc.).

Not included surveillance is carried out from the side. The observer is not a participant in the events. It can be both hidden and open.

Field observation - observation carried out in the conditions of life that are natural for military personnel (in the field, at the training ground, on a campaign, in a park, etc.).

Laboratory observation is characterized by artificial conditions that only simulate natural ones. The conditions, place and time of the observation are determined by the psychologist (another observer). Such an organization of observation allows a deeper study of the aspects of vital activity of the military personnel.

Systematic monitoring is carried out regularly with a given frequency. Usually it is carried out according to a detailed methodology with a high degree of concretization of the observer's work.

Random observation is usually not planned, but is a rich source of information. In everyday life, psychologically significant and informative situations often arise that cannot be modeled in the laboratory. Such situations require a psychologist (observer) to be highly prepared, since the difficulty of observation is the unpredictability and randomness of their occurrence.

All observation data should be recorded, systematized, processed taking into account information obtained using other methods.
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Observation

  1. Observation method
    The observation method is one of the main methods of psychological study of the activities of military specialists. It consists in the direct perception of the studied object on the basis of registration of selected units (indicators, signs) that characterize the characteristics of the studied activity, the behavior of the individual, the team, individual acts, mental reactions, speech actions, operations activities. Total
  2. Observation method
    As a scientific, objective, observation method involves a systematic and purposeful fixation of psychological facts in the natural conditions of everyday life. Observation as a scientific method of research should not be reduced to a simple registration of facts, its main purpose is a scientific explanation of the causes of a phenomenon. Necessary conditions for scientific observation: goal setting;
  3. Dispensary observation
    Patients with tissue helminthiases are subject to clinical observation by an infectious disease specialist at the place of residence. Patients operated on for echinococcosis and cysticercosis are monitored by a surgeon, neurosurgeon, or ophthalmologist at the site of the operation. With toxocariasis, after completion of etiopathogenetic therapy, control clinical blood tests and ELISA with antigens are performed
  4. Dispensary observation
    Clinical supervision is carried out for children from the high-risk group and patients with iron deficiency anemia. Clinical observation of children with a risk of developing iron deficiency anemia The risk group for developing iron deficiency anemia is composed of children: • with an unfavorable antenatal history (iron deficiency in a pregnant woman, chronic fetoplacental
  5. Clinical observation of patients
    {foto6} Clinical examination is the organization of medical activity, which is based on constant, active monitoring of people's health, the detection of diseases in the early stages, the study and elimination of the causes of their occurrence, the targeted conduct of social, medical, sanitary, hygienic and economic activities aimed at improving
  6. Military Behavior Monitoring
    (Appendix No. 5). Observation should be aimed at identifying persons who are inclined to isolation, solitude, shy, indecisive, timid, tearful, or, conversely, conflicting, wrangling, refusing to carry out orders, violating the routine, unleashed in behavior. Information on persons with articulation deficiencies (tongue-tied, lisping) is noteworthy,
  7. Dynamic observation
    Achieving and maintaining target blood pressure levels requires long-term medical follow-up with regular monitoring of patient compliance with recommendations on lifestyle changes and adherence to the prescribed antihypertensive drugs, as well as treatment correction depending on the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of treatment.
  8. Part 6. Providing regular medical supervision
    Children with AD and their families need regular medical supervision and support. Constant monitoring of the patient's condition will allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken. If asthma is under control, the patient should be examined regularly and continuously at intervals of 1 to 6 months. During the examination, a condition assessment, a review of the treatment plan should be carried out
  9. Observation diary (course of the disease)
    This section of the medical history is in the form of a diary. The existing form contains four headings: date, body temperature, the actual text of the diary (course of the disease) and the purpose. Diary entries - medical art. The diary should not be missed the essential of what happened to the patient over the past period of time. Doctor's notes should reflect the dynamics of the disease and opinion
  10. DISPENSARY SURVEILLANCE
    "D" registration with a pediatric hematologist and pediatrician with acquired forms 5 years before persistent remission and with hereditary anemia - up to 15 years of age or are removed from "D" registration with a hematologist 2 years after splenectomy; • monthly examination by a pediatrician, once every 3 months - by a hematologist; • preventive vaccinations are contraindicated for the entire “D” period, with the exception of epidemiological indications; • blood analysis
  11. Relationship Observation
    The nature of the relationship in the team can be assessed by observing the content and forms of communication of soldiers among themselves. The nature of the conversations conducted by officers, warrant officers (warrant officers), foremen and sailors (sergeants and soldiers), you can determine how they relate to each other. The friendly tone of the conversations, the willingness to render feasible help to a comrade, empathy for those problems that concern
  12. Dynamic observation
    - Clinical study. - Study of blood circulation parameters: blood pressure, pulse, central venous pressure. - Hemoconcentration indicators: hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein concentration. - Ionogram.a serum. - Parameters of acid-pulmonary balance. - Renal function: diuresis, residual nitrogen. (see also
  13. Dynamic observation
    - Circulatory system: first, blood pressure measurement after 15 minutes, then hourly monitoring of heart rate, central venous pressure. Determination of peripheral circulation. (With a central venous pressure of 12-15 cm of water. Art. Infusions stop!) - Diuresis: control hourly (permanent catheter). At least 50-100 ml of urine and sometimes more should be allocated per hour
  14. Antenatal Pregnancy Monitoring Program
    The algorithm for examining pregnant women, in addition to the generally accepted routine screening, includes a 3-fold ultrasound examination in the dynamics of pregnancy (order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 457), preparation of a gravidogram in the antenatal period, in which the main results of clinical and laboratory examinations are recorded, a test of fetal movements from 28 weeks before delivery , 3-fold screening for women in groups
  15. Medical monitoring of a child after an illness
    Monitoring the child’s health after illness is an integral part of healthcare. - Try to visit the mother and the child several times to: - Make sure that the mother continues to breastfeed and help to solve the problems that have arisen, - Make sure that the mother is able to give the child the extra food that he needs. - weigh the baby
  16. Monitoring a pregnant woman in a antenatal clinic. Preeclampsia
    Tasks of antenatal clinics The main purpose of monitoring pregnant women in antenatal clinics is to preserve the physiological course of pregnancy and to take preventive measures to prevent complications, especially placental insufficiency and gestosis. In this regard, the following tasks have been set for the antenatal clinic. 1. Determine the presence of pregnancy
  17. OBSERVATION OF PATIENTS WITH DMK
    The success of treatment of patients with DMK depends on the proper organization of gynecological care. Regular monitoring is required at all stages of examination and treatment of patients. At the first stage, differential diagnosis is performed between DMC and various gynecological and extragenital diseases. After clarifying the diagnosis - identifying the nature and level of violations in
  18. Observation of the patient in the process of respiratory support
    Even with a significant improvement in the patient’s condition, it is necessary to monitor and record at least once an hour the level of consciousness, color and humidity of the skin, arterial and central venous pressure, pulse rate, auscultatory picture in the lungs, MOD on the exhale and its compliance with the values ​​established on a respirator, pressure in a contour
  19. Observation and experiment as the main research methods in developmental psychology
    The main research methods of developmental psychology and developmental psychology are methods of collecting facts, ascertaining trends, and the dynamics of mental development that unfolds over time. At the initial stage of the development of child psychology (in the second half of the XIX - beginning of the X X centuries), it was primarily a method of observation. Researchers (including biologists and psychologists T. Tideman, I. Ten,
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