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The definition of psychological work and the main stages of its development in the Armed Forces of Russia

Psychological work in the Armed Forces is an activity conducted in peacetime and wartime by officials of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - psychologists, commanders, officers of educational institutions, aimed at the formation and development of the psychological qualities necessary for successful combat operations in military personnel, the performance of official and combat training tasks, as well as maintaining their mental health. Psychological work is an integral part of the moral and psychological support of the vital activity of the troops.

The scientific and theoretical basis for the organization and conduct of psychological work is military psychology, generalizing and concretizing data from other branches of psychology as applied to the conditions of military activity.

The need to organize the psychological support of combat training of military personnel arises with the formation of a social order for a reasonable impact and the mobilization of the human factor in battle conditions. At the same time, the organizational design of psychological work took place gradually, reflecting the achieved level of development of psychological science and significant changes in the practice of military affairs (the emergence of regular mass armies, new military professions, the complication of weapons and military equipment, etc.). The following stages of development of psychological work in the Russian armed forces are distinguished.

The first stage (second half of the 19th century - 1917) contains at its core the process of accumulating factual and research material in the interests of applying psychological science in the practice of military affairs. During this period, attempts are made to investigate combat activity and determine factors (including social and socio-psychological) of its effectiveness, requirements for the combat qualities of soldiers of various branches of the army are formed (A. Agapeev, N.A. Korf, A.P. Nechaev, N.N. Golovin, F. Gershelman, P.I. Izmestiev, M.I. Dragomirov, V.N. Polyansky, A.S. Zykov, A.S. Rezanov, etc.). Special psychological research institutions are being created: an experimental laboratory at the Military Medical Academy, an experimental psychological laboratory at the Pedagogical Courses of the Department of Military Educational Institutions, and laboratories in the cadet corps. The data of scientific and experimental studies are reflected in military publications (Military Medical Journal, Military Collection, Russian Disabled, Scout, Psychiatric Newspaper), and the content of military psychology taught at academies and schools. The system of providing psychiatric assistance to soldiers injured during the war is developing. For this purpose, the posts of military psychiatrists are introduced, and psychiatric departments are organized in military hospitals. An invaluable contribution to the theory and practice of providing psychological assistance to injured servicemen was made by famous Russian psychologists and psychiatrists V.M. Bekhterev, M.I. Astvatsaturov, G.E. Shumkov, S.D. Vladychko, Rozin, Malinovsky and others.

The second stage (20-30s) - the stage of organizational design of psychological work and psychological support of combat training activities of the troops. At this time, the process of psychophysiological research is being improved, attempts are being made to justify and conduct professional selection, and psychological knowledge is being actively promoted. In the 1920s, a system of psychological laboratories was developed: the central one (in all districts and fleets, in a number of academies and schools, in the Air Force, Navy, and armored forces), as well as in some special profiles. Their work is being profiled through GlavPUR, the Directorate of military educational institutions, directorates of combat training of the branches of the Armed Forces and combat arms, and the Central Military Medical Administration. Among the psychologists and military scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of problems of scientific organization and psychological work in the troops of that period, P.I. Izmestiev, A.E. Snesarev, G.F. Gears, S.E. Mints, A.A. Talankin, G.D. Hahanyan et al.

The third stage (1941-1945) is the stage of practical application of the achievements of psychological science in the organization of the combat activities of Soviet troops. Organizationally, psychological work did not stand out as an independent type of activity, but was carried out as part of party political work. The issues of improving the psychological qualities necessary to achieve victory over the enemy, and preparing the psyche of servicemen for combat were particularly developed. A characteristic feature of the psychological work carried out during the combat training of military personnel was its exclusively practical orientation, taking into account the combat experience of the troops, as well as supporting and taking into account the moral qualities of soldiers, which contribute to the formation of high psychological stability in battle.
Military and civil psychologists (A.N. Leontyev, B.M. Teplov, N.A. Konovalov, G.A. Fortunatov, M.P. Feofanov, A.A. Smirnov, Prangishvili, etc.) were studied during this period. : causes of fear, panic, ways to overcome them and prevent; the nature of selflessness, courage, courage; conditions for accelerated training of military specialists - radio operators, telegraphists, pilots, tank crews, etc .; Ways were developed to increase the visual and auditory sensitivity of warriors, accelerated adaptation of the eye to darkness, and improve night vision; the tasks of masking, restoring the functions of speech and movements lost after being wounded were solved.

The fourth (post-war) stage (1946-1992) is the stage of generalization of combat experience and the further development of the psychological support system for combat training. The issues of organizing and conducting psychological work, improving the quality of training of military specialists, taking into account fundamental changes in the military-technical equipment of the troops, changes in the strategy and tactics of warfare, were considered at conferences of military psychologists held during this period. In the Armed Forces of the country, centers for the scientific development of problems associated with the psychological support of combat training activities are being created (Military-Political Academy, Center for Military-Sociological, Psychological and Legal Research of the Armed Forces), central research institutions (laboratories) in the form of the armed forces are deployed. Psychological selection is introduced in military schools. In the central apparatus, types of the Armed Forces, districts and military commissariats, officials and laboratories for military professional selection function. The formation and development of a system of psychological training is taking place, and methodological methods of psychological training are being developed. The system of psychological education of military personnel is being improved. In all military institutions, the military discipline "Military Psychology and Pedagogy" is introduced.

The fifth stage (from 1992 to the present) is the stage of formation of the legal framework of psychological work and the creation of its concept.

The separation of psychological work into an independent type of activity and its organizational design is closely related to the process of reforming the educational structures of the Armed Forces, the deideologization of the theoretical foundations of education and training of military personnel, and the increasing need for qualified psychological influence on personnel. Reflection of a new understanding of the goals, content and specifics of psychological work was the refinement of its relationship with other types of moral and psychological support, the ratio of the terms “psychological work” and “psychological support”. In this regard, the term “psychological work”, as a broader one, begins to be applied to the activities of relevant specialists both in peacetime and in wartime, fixing the focus on activity, task (provision) and on the person, his mental health (psychological assistance).

The concepts of “psychological work” and “psychological support” are introduced into normative documents, and various aspects of this problem are studied in the branches of the Armed Forces and military branches. A significant contribution to the development of the theoretical foundations of conducting psychological work in the troops was made by military psychologists G.D. Lukov, K.K. Platonov, M.I. Dyachenko, N.F. Fedenko, A.V. Drummers, L.F. Zheleznyak, S.I. Sedin, P.A. Korchemny, B.Ts. Badmaev, A.M. Stolyarenko, D.V. Gander, V.T. Yusov, M.P. Korobeinikov, V.V. Sysoev, A.G. Karayani, E.P. Utlik, V.N. Seleznev, V.F. Perevalov, O.I. Zhdanov and many others. Since the mid-90s, a number of military psychological studies have been carried out directly aimed at studying the professional activities of military psychologists in various areas and substantiating the psychological conditions for increasing its effectiveness (V.S. Nikolin V.S., I.V. Syromyatnikov, A.N. Kharitonov, A.Yu. Fedotov, etc.).

Organizationally, the stage under consideration is characterized by the deployment in the troops of full-time posts of psychologists included in the structure of educational work bodies. The rights and obligations of psychologists, the basic forms and directions of their activities, the procedure for interaction with other officials are determined. In addition to the full-time posts of military psychologists, emergency centers and psychological assistance and rehabilitation centers for military personnel are being created.
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The definition of psychological work and the main stages of its development in the Armed Forces of Russia

  1. The definition of psychological work and the main stages of its development
    Psychological work is an activity carried out in peacetime and wartime by commanders, officers of educational institutions, psychologists and specially created structures (units). It is aimed at studying, forming and developing the psychological qualities of military personnel, maintaining the mental states necessary for the successful conduct of hostilities,
  2. The procedure for the submission of information on psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
    (according to the directive of the Head of the Main Directorate of Internal Affairs of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation 1998 No. 3 “On information on psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation”) {foto21} The collection and analysis of information on psychological work (hereinafter referred to as information) is carried out in educational bodies. Information may be provided in writing (report) and verbally (report). When submitting reports (reports) not
  3. The list of guidelines defining the organization of psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
    Order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation of 2004 No. 70 “On the educational bodies of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation”. Order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation of 1995 No. 235 “On improving the system of educational work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation”. Order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation of 2000 No. 50 “On the Implementation of the Guidelines for Professional Psychological Selection in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation”. Order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
  4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK IN THE ARMED FORCES
    GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK IN ARMED
  5. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK IN THE ARMED FORCES
    GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK IN ARMED
  6. Appendix to the order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. Guidelines for Psychological Work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, 1997
    These Guidelines determine the content and organization of psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation *, as well as its scientific, methodological, material, technical, financial support and training
  7. The main areas of work, organizational forms and effective methods of activity of a military psychologist, ensuring the functioning of the system of rehabilitation and rehabilitation in the Armed Forces
    Psychologists of military units carry out rehabilitation work, both in the area of ​​military operations and in peaceful conditions, organically including their activities in a three-level rehabilitation system. At the technological and methodological levels, when working in different conditions, there are significant differences: in a combat situation, psychological rehabilitation is closely related to psychological help and
  8. APPENDIX to the order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. Guidelines for psychological work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (in peacetime), 1997
    General Provisions Organization and content of psychological work. Scientific and methodological support of psychological work. Logistical and financial support for psychological work. Personnel training. Ethical standards of professional activity of a psychologist of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Recommendations for identifying individuals with signs of neuropsychiatric instability. Psychological technique "Forecast-2"
  9. Experimental work on the formation of readiness of young men of pre-draft age for service in the Armed Forces in the system of school and extracurricular activities
    Experimental work on the formation of readiness of young men of pre-draft age for service in the Armed Forces in the system of school and extracurricular
  10. Psychological foundations of building a system of rehabilitation and rehabilitation in the Armed Forces
    The system of rehabilitation and re-adaptation in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is based on two main approaches: 1. In the first case, rehabilitation and re-adaptation is understood as restoring the target psychological resource of the military personnel. “The target psychological resource is understood as the totality of the available psychological capabilities of a soldier in the circumstances of social
  11. Analysis of the effectiveness of the experimental work on the formation of readiness of young men of pre-draft age for service in the Armed Forces
    Pilot work on the formation of readiness of young men of pre-draft age for service in the Armed Forces was carried out in terms of improving patriotic education, including a complex of interrelated and mutually conditioning psychological and pedagogical conditions. Our activities included patriotic education: the study of the military history of our state,
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