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The definition of psychological work and the main stages of its development

Psychological work is an activity carried out in peacetime and wartime by commanders, officers of educational institutions, psychologists and specially created structures (units). It is aimed at studying, forming and developing the psychological qualities of military personnel, maintaining the mental conditions necessary for the successful conduct of hostilities, performing official and combat training tasks, as well as maintaining their mental health.

The scientific and theoretical basis for the organization and conduct of psychological work in the armed forces and other law enforcement agencies is military psychology, which generalizes and concretizes the content of other branches of psychology in relation to the conditions of military activity.

Psychological work is an essential element of the system of moral and psychological support for various aspects of the vital activity of military personnel and is carried out at strategic, operational and tactical organizational levels.

The need for psychological work arises with the formation of a social order for a justified, based on scientific psychological knowledge, the impact of the available staff, especially in combat. Its organizational design took place gradually, with a focus on the achieved level of development of psychological science and changes in the practice of military affairs. The logic of the development of the domestic system of psychological support for military activity reflects the movement of science and practice from the first attempts (from the end of the 19th century) to study military activity and determine the psychological factors of its effectiveness, to identify and formulate requirements for the fighting qualities of soldiers of various types and types of troops, to organizational design psychological service, having staff units and structures.

The following stages of development of psychological work in the Russian Armed Forces are distinguished.

The first stage (second half of the 19th century - 1917) reflects the process of accumulating factual and research material in the interests of applying psychological science in the practice of military affairs. During this period, attempts are made to investigate combat activities and identify factors (including

social and socio-psychological) of its effectiveness, requirements are formed for the fighting qualities of soldiers of various branches of the armed forces (A. Agapeev, N. A, Korf, A.P. Nechaev, N.N. Golovin, F. Gershelman, P. I. Izmestiev, M.I. Dragomirov, V.N. Polyansky, A.S. Zykov, A.S. Rezanov, etc.). At this stage, special psychological research institutions are being created: an experimental laboratory at the Military Medical Academy, an experimental psychological laboratory at the teacher training courses of the Department of Military Educational Institutions, and laboratories in the cadet corps. The data of scientific and experimental studies are reflected in military publications (Military Medical Journal, Military Collection, Russian Disabled, Scout, Psychiatric Newspaper), and the content of military psychology taught at academies and schools. The system of providing psychiatric assistance to soldiers injured during the war is developing. For this purpose, the posts of military psychiatrists are introduced, and psychiatric departments are organized in military hospitals. An invaluable contribution to the theory and practice of providing psychological assistance to injured servicemen was made by famous Russian psychologists and psychiatrists: V.M. Bekhterev, M.I. Astvatsaturov, G.E. Shumkov, S.D. Vladychko and others.

The second stage (20-30s) - the stage of organizational design of psychological work and psychological support of combat training activities of the troops. At this time, the process of psychophysiological research is being improved, attempts are being made to justify and conduct professional selection, and psychological knowledge is being actively promoted. In the 20s. a system of psychological laboratories is expanding: they are being created in all districts, in the navy, in a number of academies and schools, in the Air Force, Navy, in the armored forces (central), as well as in some profiles (specialized). Their work is being profiled through GlavPUR, the Directorate of military educational institutions, directorates for combat training of the branches of the Armed Forces and military branches, and the Central Military Medical Directorate. Among the psychologists and military scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of problems of scientific organization and psychological work in the troops of that period, P. I. Izmestiev, A. E. Snesarev, G. F. Gire, S. E. Mintz, A. A. Talankin, G. D. Khakhanyan, etc.

The third stage (1941 -1945) is the stage of practical application of the achievements of psychological science in the organization of the combat activities of Soviet troops. Organizationally, psychological work did not stand out as an independent type of activity, but was carried out as part of party political work. The issues of improving the psychological qualities necessary to achieve victory over the enemy, and preparing the psyche of servicemen for combat were particularly developed. A characteristic feature of the psychological work carried out during the combat training of military personnel was its exclusively practical orientation, taking into account the combat experience of the troops, as well as supporting and taking into account the moral qualities of soldiers, which contribute to the formation of high psychological stability in battle. Military and civil psychologists (N. A. Konovalov, A. N. Leontyev, A. R. Luria, A. A. Smirnov, B. M. Teplov, M.
P. Feofanov, G. A. Fortunatov and others) in this period were studied:

• causes of fear, panic, ways to overcome them and prevent; • the nature of selflessness, courage, courage;

• conditions for accelerated training of military specialists - radio operators, telegraphists, pilots, tank crews, etc .;

• Ways were developed to increase the visual and auditory sensitivity of warriors, accelerated adaptation of the eye to darkness, and improve night vision;

• The tasks of masking, restoring the functions of speech and movements lost after being wounded were solved.

The fourth (post-war) stage (1946-1992) is the stage of generalization of combat experience and the further development of the psychological support system for combat training. During this period, the focus is on the organization and conduct of psychological work, improving the quality of training of military specialists, taking into account fundamental changes in the military-technical equipment of troops, changes in the strategy and tactics of warfare. In the system of psychological support of the Armed Forces of the country, certain changes are taking place:

• centers for the scientific development of problems associated with the psychological support of combat training activities are being created (Military-Political Academy, Center for Military-Sociological, Psychological and Legal Research of the Armed Forces);

• deployed central research institutions (laboratories) in the form of the Armed Forces;

• psychological selection is introduced in military schools;

• in the central apparatus, types of the Armed Forces, districts and military commissariats, officials and laboratories for military professional selection are functioning;

• there is a process of formation and development of a system of psychological training of military specialists, methodological methods of psychological training are being developed;

• The system of psychological education of military personnel is being improved. The military discipline Military Psychology and Pedagogy is being introduced in all military institutions.

The fifth stage (from 1992 to the present) is the stage of forming the legal framework for psychological work, creating a psychological service and developing its concept.

Psychological service is one of the essential components of the system of moral and psychological support for the vital activity of the troops, which is a network of specialized bodies, units and officials, united in a single organizational structure, the content of which is determined by the concept of "psychological work".

The separation of psychological work into an independent type of activity and its organizational design in the form of a psychological service is closely related to the process of reforming the educational structures of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the de-ideologization of the theoretical foundations of education and training of military personnel, and the need for qualified psychological influence on personnel.

Fig. 1.1.

Correlation of psychological support and psychological assistance in the framework of psychological work carried out in the Armed Forces

The current stage in the development of psychological service is characterized by the introduction of full-time posts of psychologists (in the Armed Forces - from battalion and above), as well as the opening of centers and centers for psychological assistance and rehabilitation (full-time and non-staff), units of professional psychological selection, research units and centers developing problems of the most effective use of the potential of psychology in the conditions of military activity.

Today, the concepts of “psychological support” and “psychological work” are included in regulatory documents. However, the simultaneous introduction into circulation in the early 90's. XX century terms that are close in content require clarification of their relationship with each other.

The term "psychological work", as a broader one, is applied to the activities of relevant specialists, both in peacetime and in wartime, fixing the focus on activity, task (psychological support) and on. a person, his mental health (psychological assistance). In fig. 1.1 presents the relationship of psychological support and psychological assistance for a number of parameters characterizing individual aspects of psychological work. This distinction has a relative character, expressing, so to speak, the ideology of these types of activities (psychological support, psychological assistance), emphasizing their functional specificity according to the most significant parameters.

Significant contribution to the development of the theoretical foundations of conducting psychological work in the troops over the past decades has been made by such specialists in the field of military psychology as A. Ya. Antsupov, B. Ts. Badmaev, A. V. Barabanshchikov, D. V. Gander, M. I. Dyachenko, O. I. Zhdanov, L. F. Zheleznyak, A. G. Karayani, M. P. Korobeinikov, P. A. Korchemny, G. D. Lukov, V. F. Perevalov, K. K. Platonov, V. N. Seleznev, A. M. Stolyarenko, V. V.: Sysoev, S. I. Sjedin, N. F. Fedenko, V. T. Yusov, E. P. Utlik and many others. S mid 90s XX century a number of military psychological studies were carried out directly aimed at studying the professional activities of military psychologists in various fields and substantiating the psychological conditions for increasing its effectiveness (V. S. Nikolin, I. V. Syromyatnikov, A. Yu. Fedotov, A. N. Kharitonov and other)
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